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First-degree relatives of patients with psychotic disorder have higher levels of polygenic risk (PRS) for schizophrenia and higher levels of intermediate phenotypes.
We conducted, using two different samples for discovery (n = 336 controls and 649 siblings of patients with psychotic disorder) and replication (n = 1208 controls and 1106 siblings), an analysis of association between PRS on the one hand and psychopathological and cognitive intermediate phenotypes of schizophrenia on the other in a sample at average genetic risk (healthy controls) and a sample at higher than average risk (healthy siblings of patients). Two subthreshold psychosis phenotypes, as well as a standardised measure of cognitive ability, based on a short version of the WAIS-III short form, were used. In addition, a measure of jumping to conclusion bias (replication sample only) was tested for association with PRS.
In both discovery and replication sample, evidence for an association between PRS and subthreshold psychosis phenotypes was observed in the relatives of patients, whereas in the controls no association was observed. Jumping to conclusion bias was similarly only associated with PRS in the sibling group. Cognitive ability was weakly negatively and non-significantly associated with PRS in both the sibling and the control group.
The degree of endophenotypic expression of schizophrenia polygenic risk depends on having a sibling with psychotic disorder, suggestive of underlying gene–environment interaction. Cognitive biases may better index genetic risk of disorder than traditional measures of neurocognition, which instead may reflect the population distribution of cognitive ability impacting the prognosis of psychotic disorder.
To analyse the Nutritional Knowledge Test (NKT) using Item Response Theory (ITR) analysis and to assess the construct validity of the Nutritional Knowledge Scale (NKTS) and its associations with adolescent food group consumption and nutritional biomarkers.
Multicentre investigation conducted in ten European cities.
Adolescents aged 12·5–17·5 years (n 3215) who completed over 75 % of the NKT.
Factor analysis indicated that the NKT can be analysed with a one-dimensional model. Eleven out of twenty-three items from the NKT presented adequate parameters and were selected to be included in the NKTS. Nutrition knowledge was positively associated with consumption of fruits, cereals, dairy products, pulses, meat and eggs, and fish, as well as with blood concentrations of vitamin C, β-carotene, n-3 fatty acids, holo-transcobalamin, cobalamin and folate; nutrition knowledge was negatively associated with intake of olives and avocado, alcohol and savoury snacks.
The NKTS assessed nutritional knowledge adequately and it is proposed as a new tool to investigate this subject in future studies.
The value of the nosological distinction between non-affective and affective psychosis has frequently been challenged. We aimed to investigate the transdiagnostic dimensional structure and associated characteristics of psychopathology at First Episode Psychosis (FEP). Regardless of diagnostic categories, we expected that positive symptoms occurred more frequently in ethnic minority groups and in more densely populated environments, and that negative symptoms were associated with indices of neurodevelopmental impairment.
This study included 2182 FEP individuals recruited across six countries, as part of the EUropean network of national schizophrenia networks studying Gene–Environment Interactions (EU-GEI) study. Symptom ratings were analysed using multidimensional item response modelling in Mplus to estimate five theory-based models of psychosis. We used multiple regression models to examine demographic and context factors associated with symptom dimensions.
A bifactor model, composed of one general factor and five specific dimensions of positive, negative, disorganization, manic and depressive symptoms, best-represented associations among ratings of psychotic symptoms. Positive symptoms were more common in ethnic minority groups. Urbanicity was associated with a higher score on the general factor. Men presented with more negative and less depressive symptoms than women. Early age-at-first-contact with psychiatric services was associated with higher scores on negative, disorganized, and manic symptom dimensions.
Our results suggest that the bifactor model of psychopathology holds across diagnostic categories of non-affective and affective psychosis at FEP, and demographic and context determinants map onto general and specific symptom dimensions. These findings have implications for tailoring symptom-specific treatments and inform research into the mood-psychosis spectrum.
Empirical data on the use of services due to mental health problems in older adults in Europe is lacking. The objective of this study is to identify factors associated with service utilization in the elderly.
As part of the MentDis_ICF65+ study, N = 3,142 people aged 65–84 living in the community in six European and associated countries were interviewed. Based on Andersen's behavioral model predisposing, enabling, and need factors were analyzed with logistic regression analyses.
Overall, 7% of elderly and 11% of those with a mental disorder had used a service due to mental health problems in the last 12 months. Factors significantly associated with underuse were male sex, lower education, living in the London catchment area, higher functional impairment and more comorbid mental disorders. The most frequently reported barrier to service use was personal beliefs, e.g. “I can deal with my problem on my own” (90%).
Underutilization of mental health services among older people in the European community is common and interventions are needed to achieve an adequate use of services.
A high incidence of burnout has been reported in health professionals working in palliative care units. Our present study aims to determine whether there are differences in the secretion of salivary cortisol between palliative care unit health professionals with and without burnout, and to elucidate whether there is a relationship between burnout syndrome and perceived stress and psychopathological status in this population.
A total of 69 health professionals who met the inclusion criteria participated in our study, including physicians, nurses, and nursing assistants. Some 58 were women (M = 29.65 years, SD = 8.64) and 11 men (M = 35.67 years, SD = 11.90). The level of daily cortisol was registered in six measurements taken over the course of a workday. Burnout syndrome was evaluated with the Maslach Burnout Inventory–Human Services Survey (MBI–HSS), the level of perceived stress was measured using the Perceived Stress Scale, and psychopathological status was gauged using the SCL–90–R Symptoms Inventory.
There were statistically significant differences in secretion of cortisol in professionals with high scores on a single subscale of the MBI–HSS [F(3.5) = 2.48, p < 0.03]. This effect was observed 15–30 minutes after waking up (p < 0.01) and at bedtime (p < 0.06). Moreover, the professionals with burnout showed higher scores on the psychopathology and stress subscales than professionals without it.
Significance of results:
A higher score in any dimension of the burnout syndrome in palliative care unit health professionals seems to be related to several physiological and psychological parameters. These findings may be relevant for further development of our understanding of the relationship between levels of burnout and cortisol secretion in the health workers in these units.
The MentDis_ICF65+ Project is an epidemiological study of mental disorders in people 65 to 85 years old in several European cities, including Madrid. Its aim is to determine the lifetime, 12-month, and 1-month prevalence of the main mental disorders in the elderly. The relationship of age and sex with each mental disorder was examined. The sample was collected through random sampling of people over 65 in Madrid, and consisted of 555 persons between 65 and 85 years old. The CIDI65+ was administered. Estimates of prevalence and odds ratios (OR) were made using sample frequencies and according to sex and age. Excluding nicotine dependence, 40.12% of the sample was found to have suffered a mental disorder at some time in their lives, 29.89% in the past year, and 17.70% were currently suffering from a mental disorder. The disorders with the highest prevalence rates were anxiety disorders, alcohol-related disorders, and mood disorders. Elderly women had a higher risk of suffering an anxiety disorder (OR men/women 0.42; CI 0.25–0.68) with a significance level of p < .001, while elderly men were more affected by any substance-related disorder (OR men/women 3.96; CI 1.62–11.07) with a significance level of p < .001. Each disorder’s prevalence decreased with age (OR 65–74/75–85, 1.85; CI 1.25–2.75) with a significance level of p < .01. Results show higher prevalence rates than previous studies reported. The main implications of this study, and the need to adapt mental health services for people over 65, are highlighted.
Except for dementia and depression, little is known about common mental disorders in elderly people.
To estimate current, 12-month and lifetime prevalence rates of mental disorders in different European and associated countries using a standardised diagnostic interview adapted to measure the cognitive needs of elderly people.
The MentDis_ICF65+ study is based on an age-stratified, random sample of 3142 older men and women (65–84 years) living in selected catchment community areas of participating countries.
One in two individuals had experienced a mental disorder in their lifetime, one in three within the past year and nearly one in four currently had a mental disorder. The most prevalent disorders were anxiety disorders, followed by affective and substance-related disorders.
Compared with previous studies we found substantially higher prevalence rates for most mental disorders. These findings underscore the need for improving diagnostic assessments adapted to the cognitive capacity of elderly people. There is a need to raise awareness of psychosocial problems in elderly people and to deliver high-quality mental health services to these individuals.
Nowadays, clusters of multicores are becoming the norm and, although, many or-parallel Prolog systems have been developed in the past, to the best of our knowledge, none of them was specially designed to explore the combination of shared and distributed memory architectures. In recent work, we have proposed a novel computational model specially designed for such combination which introduces a layered model with two scheduling levels, one for workers sharing memory resources, which we named a team of workers, and another for teams of workers (not sharing memory resources). In this work, we present a first implementation of such model and for that we revive and extend the YapOr system to exploit or-parallelism between teams of workers. We also propose a new set of built-in predicates that constitute the syntax to interact with an or-parallel engine in our platform. Experimental results show that our implementation is able to increase speedups as we increase the number of workers per team, thus taking advantage of the maximum number of cores in a machine, and to increase speedups as we increase the number of teams, thus taking advantage of adding more computer nodes to a cluster.
In September 2005, an accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) system based on a 1MV Tandetron accelerator arrived at the Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (CNA). One of the main research programs for this AMS facility is based on radiocarbon. At the same time as the AMS facility was installed and tested, the 14C sample preparation laboratory was designed and set up. A graphitization line that allows the preparation of 5 samples in parallel was designed and built in October 2006. The first months were mainly dedicated to check and optimize all the sample processing. For such a task, several reference samples have been prepared and measured. Since the beginning of 2007, the laboratory has been fully operational and is currently performing as a service for the scientific community. During 2007, nearly 100 unknown samples were prepared and measured in our AMS system. Most of them were for dating purposes, but also other applications were investigated. The performance of the 14C laboratory and dating service will be shown, with some examples as illustration.
Objectives: The Carpentier-Edwards pericardial (CEP) prostheses are the type of bioprostheses most used worldwide. Although they were designed to minimize the rate of valve deterioration and reoperation, their clinical superiority over other prostheses models still lacks confirmation. The objective of this study was to evaluate its effectiveness.
Methods: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis in the PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, and Lilacs databases. Operative mortality, overall mortality and reoperation rates after heart valve surgery were compared between the use of CEP and other cardiac prostheses. Two independent reviewers screened studies for inclusion and extracted the data. Disagreements were resolved by consensus. The GRADE criterion was used to assess the evidence quality.
Results: A total of twenty-eight studies were selected, including 19,615 individuals. The studies presented a high heterogeneity and low quality of evidence what limited the reliability of the results. The pooled data from the selected studies did not demonstrate significant differences between CEP and porcine, pericardial or stentless prostheses regarding operative mortality, overall mortality and reoperation rates. However, the pooled data from 3 observational trials pointed out a higher risk for reoperation after valve replacement using CEP prostheses against mechanical prostheses (OR 4.92 [95 percent confidence interval 2.43–9.96]).
Conclusions: The current data present in the literature still does not support a clinical advantage for the use of CEP prostheses over other bioprostheses. The quality of the studies in the literature is limited and further studies are needed to address if CEP prostheses will have a clinical advantage over other prostheses.
This study aims to examine the prevalence and characteristics of physical, emotional and sexual childhood abuse. It also examines whether other non-abuse types of childhood adversities related to maladaptive family functioning and separations during childhood can be used as markers for the presence of childhood abuse. Participants (N = 237) were women at 2–3 days after delivery that completed the Spanish-validated version of the Early Trauma Inventory Self Report (ETI-SR; Bremner, Bolus, & Mayer, 2007; Plaza et al., 2011), designed to assess the presence of childhood adversities. Results show that 29% of the women had experienced some type of childhood abuse, and 10% more than one type. Logistic regression analyses indicate that childhood parental death is a risk marker for childhood emotional abuse (OR: 3.77; 95% CI: 1.327–10.755; p <.013), childhood parental substance abuse is a risk marker for childhood sexual (OR: 3.72; 95% CI: 1.480–9.303; p < .005) and physical abuse (OR: 2.610; 95% CI: 1.000–6.812; p < .05) and that childhood family mental illness is a risk marker for childhood emotional (OR: 2.95; 95% CI: 1.175–7.441; p < .021) and sexual abuse (OR: 2.55; 95% CI: 1.168–5.580; p < .019). The high prevalence of childhood abuse indicates a need for assessment during the perinatal period. Screening for childhood family mental illness, parental substance abuse, and parental death - all identified risk factors for reporting childhood abuse - can help to identify women that should be assessed specifically regarding abuse.
Information on multiple deliveries with regard to Portugal is scarce. Based on data provided by the Portuguese Institute of Statistics (INE), the rates for double and triple deliveries were calculated since 1930. The results obtained show for twins a uniform temporal pattern up to the 1970s. At this time rates decreased, but later they gradually recovered, reaching their maximum level in 2010. For triplets, the highest rates occurred between 1999 and 2002. For the period 1988–2011, the rates of multiple deliveries were related to a set of variables recorded in the INE database on live births. Significant differences (p < .001) between simple and multiple deliveries were obtained for maternal age, parity and marital status. Considering the year when the delivery occurred, significant differences (p < .001) persisted for maternal age regardless of the year. For the type of mating, significance was consistently found since the year 2002 (either by using the marital or the cohabitation criteria), and for parity since 2003. With regard to territorial variation, throughout seven periods between 1930 and 2011, the rates among the 20 administrative Portuguese territories, including the two insular districts of Açores and Madeira, were mostly stable for twinning rates, with a minimum level in 1970–1989. Regarding triplets, the greatest inter-district variation was found after 1980. The results of the Portuguese study on multiple deliveries are interpreted in the context of the Iberian Peninsula based on findings reported for Spain.
Previous studies have described promising antitumor activity of an organometallic Ru(II) complex, η5-Cyclopentadienyl(2,2′-bipyridyl)(triphenylphosphane) Ruthenium(II) triflate ([(η5-C5H5)Ru(2,2′-bipyridyl)(PPh3)][CF3SO3]) herein designated as TM34. Its broad spectrum of activity against a panel of human tumor cell lines and high antiproliferative efficiency prompted us to focus on its mode of action. We present herein results obtained with two human tumor cell lines A2780 and MDAMB231 on the compound distribution within the cell, the mechanism of its activity, and its cellular targets. The prospective metallodrug TM34 revealed: (a) fast antiproliferative effects even at short incubation times for both cell lines; (b) preferential localization at the cell membrane and cytosol; (c) cellular activity by a temperature-dependent process, probably macropinocytosis; (d) inhibition of a lysosomal enzyme, acid phosphatase, in a dose-dependent mode; and (e) disruption and vesiculation of the Golgi apparatus, which suggest the involvement of the endosomal/lysosomal system in its mode of action. These results are essential to elucidate the basis for the cytotoxic activity and mechanism of action of this RuII(η5-cyclopentadienyl) complex.
A new deep-sea fish is reported for the tropical eastern Atlantic. The rare chiasmodontid Kali macrodon was caught for the first time in Cape Verdean waters during an oceanographic survey in September 2009. This record provides the fifth occurrence for the species in the north-eastern Atlantic and represents the third specimen ever caught in tropical waters.
Morphological differences in the otoliths of Macrodon atricauda from Rio Grande do Sul State (southern Brazil) and of M. ancylodon from Pará State (northern Brazil) were examined. Until recently, these were considered two populations of the same species. Although relatively similar in their general shape, those of large M. atricauda (>300 mm total length) were shorter and thinner and their outer surface was convex (those of the smallest specimens had a more lobullated antero-dorsal margin) whereas those of similarly sized M. ancylodon were larger, thicker and less lobullated. These features of the otoliths allow these morphologically similar species to be discriminated. The pattern of translucent and opaque bands in sectioned otoliths also differed. The otoliths of M. atricauda showed clear annual banding which allowed ageing, while those of M. ancylodon had no distinct alternate bands.
There are no percentile curves for BMI, waist circumference (WC) or waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) available for Portuguese children and adolescents. The purpose of the present study was to develop age- and sex-specific BMI, WC and WHtR percentile curves for a representative sample of adolescents living in the Portuguese islands of Azores, one of the poorest regions of Europe, and to compare them with those from other countries.
Cross-sectional school-based study. Weight, height and WC were objectively measured according to standard procedures. Smoothed percentile curves were estimated using Cole's LMS method.
Proportionate stratified random sample of 1500 adolescents, aged 15–18 years.
Results showed some sex differences in the shape of the BMI curves: in girls, the upper percentile values tend to decrease by the age of 16 and 17 years; whereas in boys, the upper percentiles tend to be flat between 15 and 16 years and then increase until the age of 18 years. In both sexes, the upper percentile values of both WC and WHtR decreased slightly by the age of 16 years and then increased steeply. In both sexes, the Azorean values for the 50th and 90th WC percentiles were higher than those reported for adolescents from the majority of other countries.
The reference curves presented herein provide baseline data for the long-term surveillance of Azorean adolescents, as well as for national and international comparisons.
The resident population of common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in the Sado Estuary, Portugal, has been declining at least during the past three decades. A complete photographic census produced a current count of 24 animals—19 adults, three subadults and two calves. It appears to be phylopatric and essentially closed, but given the likely importance that exchanges with neighbouring coastal groups may play, even if rare, the most adequate term to define this dolphin should be community and not population. Large groups with all age-classes are common in the community, possibly as a calf and subadult protection strategy, and this may be related to the fact that these age-classes have had high mortality rates in the last decade. Maternity of two calves was determined, and we found that the two mothers adopted different parenting strategies. While one mother spent more time alone with her calf, the other mother spent more time with her calf in larger groups. The average coefficient of association for this community is 0.45, quite high for this species. Associations and typical group size are similar between all individuals, with no patterning according to age-class or sex, which constitutes an atypical trait for dolphin societies. There are also no clear divisions in this community according to cluster analysis. Associations are preferred and long term, lasting approximately 34 days and fitting a pattern of casual acquaintances, where individuals associate for a period of time, disassociate and may reassociate after that. This reflects the fission–fusion character of the community, but in a more stable manner. We think this is caused by a combination of demographic characteristics and a stable and productive environment, which led to a decrease in competition between individuals.
Single probe infrared low coherence optical interferometry has been proven to be an effective tool for characterization of thin and ultra-thin semiconductor Si and compound materials wafers. Its application was however limited to wafers transparent at probing wavelength, and having relatively smooth surfaces. Purpose of this paper is to present an extension of low coherence interferometry to characterization of non-transparent wafers, and wafers with rough surfaces.
Abstract. We propose novel stress metrology technique for measurement of local values stress tensor components in the coated wafers. New metrology is based on fiber-optic low coherence interferometry and can be applied to study stress not only in semicondiuctor wafers but in wide variety applications spanning from semiconductor to construction industry where measurements of plates covered by thin film encountered in flat panel displayes, solar cells, modern windows.