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The aim of this piece of research was to study the existence of clusters based on anger, empathy and cortisol and testosterone measures associated with aggressive behavior in school-aged children. The sample group comprised 139 eight-year-old children (80 boys and 59 girls). Aggressive behavior was measured using the Direct and Indirect Aggression Scale. Both psychological and biological variables were used to determine psychobiological profiles. The psychological variables considered were trait anger, measured using the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory for Children and Adolescents, and empathy, measured using the Empathy Quotient-Child Version. Testosterone and cortisol concentrations were measured through saliva samples and analyzed using an ELISA (Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). A Cluster Analysis revealed three clusters which were clearly different as regards their psychological and biological characteristics. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed that the cluster characterized by having higher anger levels, lower empathy levels and higher testosterone and cortisol levels was more aggressive than the other two (p < .0001, η2 = .19). The results indicate that studying psychological and biological variables together may help establish differentiated aggression patterns among children.
Internalized stigma has a high prevalence in people with mental health problems and is associated with negative consequences in different areas: work, social, personal, etc. Therefore, it is relevant to systematically study the characteristics and effectiveness of the different psychological and psychosocial interventions aimed at reducing it. Through the databases MEDLINE and PsycINFO, among others, controlled studies on specific interventions to reduce internalized stigma in people with severe mental disorders published between 2008 and 2018 were selected and reviewed. Results showed that the interventions can be grouped into four blocks: (a) psychoeducational interventions about stigma; (b) cognitive-behavioral interventions, mainly aimed at modifying self-stigmatizing beliefs; (c) interventions focused on the revelation of mental illness; and (d) multicomponent interventions that combine several of the above. The interventions had an average of 10 sessions and were predominantly applied in group format. In 9 of the 14 studies reviewed, significant results were obtained in the reduction of internalized stigma with small or moderate effect sizes. There were also significant improvements in other variables, such as subjective recovery or coping. The main methodological limitation of the studies reviewed was the absence of information on the rejection rate. We conclude that there are effective interventions aimed at reducing internalized stigma, with psychoeducational interventions on stigma and multicomponent interventions showing the best results. Cognitive-behavioral interventions and interventions based on disclosure have been studied to a lesser extent and their results are inconclusive. Future research should focus on establishing optimal interventions according to characteristics and objectives of individuals.
Earthquakes may lead to a reaction to severe stress and adjustment disorders (RSSAD). On September 7, 19, and 23, 2017, Mexico was struck by many severe earthquakes. The aim of this study was to examine whether there was an increase in the number of consultations and RSSAD in a psychiatric emergency department in Mexico City after these earthquakes.
We studied retrospectively the diagnosis and triage assessment from a Mexican psychiatric emergency department database from September 1 to November 30, 2017, and analyzed RSSAD and the number of consultations after the earthquakes.
A total of 1,811 psychiatric emergency consultations were registered from the period of study. A total of 141 consultations represented RSSAD. There was a significant increase of RSSAD after the September 23, 2017, earthquake. The triage assessment revealed that the urgency of the consultations was higher immediately after the earthquakes.
Natural disasters, such as earthquakes, may trigger diverse RSSAD leading to increased emergency consultations, especially when those disasters are repetitive. Mental health professionals should be adequately trained and sensitized for possible acute disaster victims. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2019;13:686–690).
Empirical data on the use of services due to mental health problems in older adults in Europe is lacking. The objective of this study is to identify factors associated with service utilization in the elderly.
As part of the MentDis_ICF65+ study, N = 3,142 people aged 65–84 living in the community in six European and associated countries were interviewed. Based on Andersen's behavioral model predisposing, enabling, and need factors were analyzed with logistic regression analyses.
Overall, 7% of elderly and 11% of those with a mental disorder had used a service due to mental health problems in the last 12 months. Factors significantly associated with underuse were male sex, lower education, living in the London catchment area, higher functional impairment and more comorbid mental disorders. The most frequently reported barrier to service use was personal beliefs, e.g. “I can deal with my problem on my own” (90%).
Underutilization of mental health services among older people in the European community is common and interventions are needed to achieve an adequate use of services.
Loneliness is a risk factor for morbidity as well as mortality. Older people are more vulnerable to feeling alone due to age-associated changes and losses they might experience. This study aimed to analyze sociodemographic, psychosocial, and mental health variables related to loneliness in the elderly. A random sample of 419 people over 65 years old from the Community of Madrid was used. The UCLA Loneliness Scale, the CIDI65+ Diagnostic Interview, and the WHOQOL-BREF Quality of Life Measure were administered. A regression p model was estimated to identify the variables that best predict loneliness associated with old age. Loneliness-associated variables included living alone t(161.41) = 2.07; p < .040, marital status F(5, 404) = 4.52; p < .001, frequency of economic problems F(1, 408 ) = 4.86; p < .028, quality of life F(4, 405) = 7.36; p < .001, satisfaction with life F(4, 405) = 3.80; p < .005, satisfaction with social relationships F(4, 405) = 19.50; p < .001, presence of a mental disorder (t(98.70) = 2.92; p < .004), and having an anxiety disorder (t(51.11) = 2.19; p < .033). The results presented in this paper highlight some predictors of loneliness in older people that could be useful in intervention, to minimize harmful conditions that can lead to loneliness in people over 65.
The MentDis_ICF65+ Project is an epidemiological study of mental disorders in people 65 to 85 years old in several European cities, including Madrid. Its aim is to determine the lifetime, 12-month, and 1-month prevalence of the main mental disorders in the elderly. The relationship of age and sex with each mental disorder was examined. The sample was collected through random sampling of people over 65 in Madrid, and consisted of 555 persons between 65 and 85 years old. The CIDI65+ was administered. Estimates of prevalence and odds ratios (OR) were made using sample frequencies and according to sex and age. Excluding nicotine dependence, 40.12% of the sample was found to have suffered a mental disorder at some time in their lives, 29.89% in the past year, and 17.70% were currently suffering from a mental disorder. The disorders with the highest prevalence rates were anxiety disorders, alcohol-related disorders, and mood disorders. Elderly women had a higher risk of suffering an anxiety disorder (OR men/women 0.42; CI 0.25–0.68) with a significance level of p < .001, while elderly men were more affected by any substance-related disorder (OR men/women 3.96; CI 1.62–11.07) with a significance level of p < .001. Each disorder’s prevalence decreased with age (OR 65–74/75–85, 1.85; CI 1.25–2.75) with a significance level of p < .01. Results show higher prevalence rates than previous studies reported. The main implications of this study, and the need to adapt mental health services for people over 65, are highlighted.
Except for dementia and depression, little is known about common mental disorders in elderly people.
To estimate current, 12-month and lifetime prevalence rates of mental disorders in different European and associated countries using a standardised diagnostic interview adapted to measure the cognitive needs of elderly people.
The MentDis_ICF65+ study is based on an age-stratified, random sample of 3142 older men and women (65–84 years) living in selected catchment community areas of participating countries.
One in two individuals had experienced a mental disorder in their lifetime, one in three within the past year and nearly one in four currently had a mental disorder. The most prevalent disorders were anxiety disorders, followed by affective and substance-related disorders.
Compared with previous studies we found substantially higher prevalence rates for most mental disorders. These findings underscore the need for improving diagnostic assessments adapted to the cognitive capacity of elderly people. There is a need to raise awareness of psychosocial problems in elderly people and to deliver high-quality mental health services to these individuals.
Because individuals develop dementia as a manifestation of neurodegenerative or neurovascular disorder, there is a need to develop reliable approaches to their identification. We are undertaking an observational study (Ontario Neurodegenerative Disease Research Initiative [ONDRI]) that includes genomics, neuroimaging, and assessments of cognition as well as language, speech, gait, retinal imaging, and eye tracking. Disorders studied include Alzheimer’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, frontotemporal dementia, Parkinson’s disease, and vascular cognitive impairment. Data from ONDRI will be collected into the Brain-CODE database to facilitate correlative analysis. ONDRI will provide a repertoire of endophenotyped individuals that will be a unique, publicly available resource.
The advantages and limits of empirical, semi-empirical and thermodynamic methods devoted to the estimation of chlorite-formation temperature are discussed briefly. The results of semiempirical and thermodynamic approaches with different assumptions regarding the redox state of iron in chlorite are compared for a large set of natural data covering a range of pressure conditions from a few hundred bars to 18 kbar and temperature from 100 to 500°C. The T-XFe3+ evolution estimated using the thermodynamic approach of Vidal et al. (2005) shows a systematic increase in XFe3+ with decreasing temperature, which is compatible with the decrease in aO2 buffered by magnetite- or hematite-chlorite equilibrium. This trend as well as the observed increase in vacancies in chlorite with decreasing temperature is interpreted as the incorporation of Fe3+-sudoite. The standard-state properties of this endmember have been derived to reproduce the observed T-aO2-XFe3+ evolutions. It can be used to estimate T-aO2-XFe3 values with a Chl-Qtz-H2O multi-equilibrium approach. When combining our results with those of other studies published recently, it appears that thermodynamic approaches and mapping techniques developed for metamorphic rocks can be used to discuss the conditions of formation of very low-grade rocks where kinetics is much more sluggish than in metamorphic rocks. This requires use of appropriate analytical tools and techniques with a spatial resolution of a few hundred nanometres.
High-frequency filters are essential components in the radio frequency (RF) front-ends for telecommunications and remote-sensing systems. They enable to properly suppress out-of-band additive noise, external – i.e., out-of-system – and internal – i.e., inter-channel – interferences, and nonlinear distortion perturbations in the transmitter and receiver modules of the overall transceiver. Thus, a proper emitted RF signal which does not contaminate other co-channel services can be assured in the transmitter part, whereas a certain quality for the detected signal or “sensitivity” is guaranteed at the receiver end.
When designing passive filters, the obtaining of filtering transfer functions featuring high selectivity and low-power insertion loss in compact-size circuits is a major concern . In the case of active filters, some other relevant factors, such as linearity, noise performance, and power transmission gain must also be considered . Regarding the technologies commonly employed for their practical realization, the choice is mainly driven by the application intended for the filtering device that is to be developed. For example, bulky waveguide and air-/dielectric-cavity resonators are preferred in bandpass filters and multiplexers for satellite communications, where small power insertion loss and high power-handling capability are mandatory issues , . Integrated implementations in gallium-arsenide (GaAs) and silicon-germanium (SiGe) processes have been in great demand for portable mobile terminals , .
Confocal fluorescence microscopy is a broadly used imaging technique that enhances the signal-to-noise ratio by removing out of focal plane fluorescence. Confocal microscopes come with a variety of modifications depending on the particular experimental goals. Microscopes, illumination pathways, and light collection were originally focused upon obtaining the highest resolution image possible, typically on fixed tissue. More recently, live-cell confocal imaging has gained importance. Since measured signals are often rapid or transient, thus requiring higher sampling rates, specializations are included to enhance spatial and temporal resolution while maintaining tissue viability. Thus, a balance between image quality, temporal resolution, and tissue viability is needed. A subtype of confocal imaging, termed swept field confocal (SFC) microscopy, can image live cells at high rates while maintaining confocality. SFC systems can use a pinhole array to obtain high spatial resolution, similar to spinning disc systems. In addition, SFC imaging can achieve faster rates by using a slit to sweep the light across the entire image plane, thus requiring a single scan to generate an image. Coupled to a high-speed charge-coupled device camera and a laser illumination source, images can be obtained at greater than 1,000 frames per second while maintaining confocality.
The objectives of this study were: (a) to examine the direct and indirect relationships among witnessing interparental violence, parenting practices, and children's long-term psychosocial adjustment; (b) to analyze the possible gender differences in the relationships specified. The sample consisted of 1295 Spanish university students (M age = 21.21, SD = 4.04). We performed statistical analyses using structural equation modeling. The results showed that witnessing parental violence as a child is related to poor long-term psychosocial adjustment during the child's adult years. Furthermore, we found that parenting practices fully mediated the relation between witnessing interparental violence and the child's long-term adjustment. The multigroup analyses showed that most of the relations among the variables did not differ significantly by gender. However, the relation between harsh discipline and antisocial behavior was stronger for males, whereas the relation between harsh discipline and depressive symptoms was stronger for females. Finally, we discuss the implications of these findings for the clinicians and specialists who plan and develop intervention programs for populations at risk.
To assess classical and non-classical metabolic risk biomarkers in prepubertal children with different levels of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF).
CRF was assessed by the 20 m shuttle run test. To estimate physical activity, participants were observed while engaged in an after-school programme. Additionally, a short test based on a validated questionnaire was used to obtain information about physical activity practice and sedentary habits. Anthropometric parameters, blood pressure, and classical and non-traditional metabolic risk biomarkers – plasma lipid profile, glucose and insulin, homeostasis model assessment–insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), plasma uric acid, transaminases and C-reactive protein (CRP) – were measured.
The study was conducted in local elementary schools in Córdoba, Spain.
One hundred and forty-one healthy children (eighty-eight boys, fifty-three girls) aged 7–12 years, in Tanner stage I, were recruited. They were divided into two groups after they performed the 20 m shuttle run test: equal or higher cardiovascular fitness (EHCF) group and low cardiovascular fitness (LCF) group.
The LCF group displayed significantly higher TAG (P = 0·004) and lower HDL cholesterol levels (P = 0·001), as well as significantly lower values for the non-traditional lipid marker apo-A1 (P = 0·001) compared with the EHCF group. The LCF children displayed higher plasma glucose (P = 0·003) and insulin levels, higher HOMA-IR scores (P < 0·001) and higher plasma uric acid and CRP levels (P < 0·05). After adjustment for BMI, age and sex, no statistically significant differences were found between groups for the biomarkers analysed.
The study provides new information to understand the role not only of weight status but also of the level of CRF on the metabolic health profile of prepubertal children.
We report a novel, simple, and inexpensive method for preparing efficient carbon nanotube-based hydrogen sensors. Sensor devices were fabricated by simply spraying single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) dispersions on alumina substrates. Pd-functionalization of the employed SWNTs enabled increasing the device sensitivity to hydrogen. The effect of aging, thermal processing, and the employed carrier gases on the sensor performance is here described. The fabricated thin film sensors exhibited good sensitivity to hydrogen at room temperature in reversible and reproducible detection processes.
Addiction to and problematic use of the Internet are relatively recent phenomena whose scope, characteristics and correlates have begun to receive increasing attention by clinicians and researchers alike. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between time spent connected to the Internet and the variables that indicate a pathological and addictive use of this technological resource. The sample was comprised of 1,301 university students of both sexes (927 women and 374 men), with ages ranging from 18 to 30 years old. The results showed that, although most people use the Internet appropriately, users who invest higher quantities of time in the Internet more frequently exhibit connection behavior that is controlled through negative reinforcement, a high degree of arousal when online, loss of control over connection behavior, changes in health-related habits, and interference in the social, family, academic, or work spheres. These findings suggest that excessive Internet use is associated with the onset of several problems that are similar to those associated with other behavioral and technological addictions.
Alfven/acoustic waves are ubiquitous in astrophysical as well as in laboratory plasmas. Their interplay with energetic ions is of crucial importance to understanding the energy and particle exchange in astrophysical plasmas as well as to obtaining a viable energy source in magnetically confined fusion devices. In magnetically confined fusion plasmas, an experimental phase-space characterisation of convective and diffusive energetic particle losses induced by Alfven/acoustic waves allows for a better understanding of the underlying physics. The relevance of these results in the problem of the anomalous heating of the solar corona is checked by MHD simulations of Tokamak-like Solar flare tubes.
The present study aimed to examine the levels and interactions of family burden (FB) and expressed emotion (EE) in first episode psychosis (FEP) patients and, secondly, to observe the potential change after a brief psychoeducational group intervention implemented in a real world clinical setting. Twenty-three key relatives of FEP patients received a brief psychoeducational group intervention. FB and EE were assessed before and after the intervention. EE-change and correlations between variables were examined. Half of the sample of key-relatives showed high levels of EE. No severe family burden was observed. FB and EE did not change after the intervention. Family subjective and objective burden were correlated with emotional overinvolvement, but not with criticism. Brief psychoeducational groups may not be sufficient to reduce FB and EE associated to the experience of caregiving for a family member with a first-episode psychotic disorder.
Under the perspective of the Theory of Planned Behavior, the objective of this study was to know the gender differences in the variables involved in the use of effective preventive measures in sexual relations against HIV in a sample of university students from Spain and Portugal. Furthermore, it is examined whether these factors produce different predictions concerning the adoption of safe sexual behaviour for young man and women in each country. The sample consisted of 683 university students, 319 Portuguese (64% female and 36% male) from the University of Algarve and 364 Spanish students (51% female and 49% male) from the University of Huelva. Data were obtained by means of a questionnaire. The data revealed that there are gender differences which apply in both countries, highlighting that the young women have more positive attitudes, greater perceived behavioural control and intention of condom use than young men. However, they protect themselves less that their male counterparts: the percentage of females who say using condoms as a contraceptive method is less than the percentage of males, and especially with their steady partners. The results are discussed in relation to gender role norms, to have a steady partner or not, gender relations, the associated meaning to sexual relations for men and women and their implications for the design of sexual educational programmes for them.
This study of papers gathered from the proceedings presented at Spanish social psychology conferences explores the use of bibliometrics for studying scientific disciplines. A reference database of all the papers included in the conference proceedings of events held from 1983 to 2000 was generated and classified by thematic area, paper type and author institutional affiliation. The references were laid out on contingency tables and mapped with correspondence analysis. The results show that there is a growing number of co-authored papers and a predominance of empirical over theoretical paper types. Some institutions have a higher concentration of theoretical papers while others work mostly in the areas of organizational and health psychology. In terms of empirical papers, there is a tendency towards generating more qualitative-based studies over the span of time captured by this work. There are also a number of papers written about such areas as cultural psychology that points to the emergence of an interest in critical social psychology. Concluding remarks underline the role of conferences and scientific meetings as an important indicator of the dynamic development of a scientific discipline.
Microminerals including copper and iron are essential to immunity and health in human beings. The development of powerful tools in analytical cell biology and molecular genetics has facilitated efforts to identify specific cellular and molecular functions of trace elements in the maturation, activation and functions of host defence mechanisms. Selected recent reports about the role of copper and iron nutrition on immune functions are critically analysed here. Effects of trace element supplementation on infectious morbidity are also reviewed. While micromineral deficiencies, in general, may have widespread effects on nearly all components of immune response, these effects can be reversed by supplementation. However, the conflicting effects of iron deficiency and iron supplementation in vitro on the defensive systems reveals the urgent need for further additional information on the in vivo situation. In the elderly, vaccination against respiratory infections is likely to protect only 30–70 % of the population. However, it may be possible to modulate immune function and ultimately reduce the severity of infections through micronutrient supplementation. Thus, microminerals contribute to the maintenance of the balance between immunity and health in humans.