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Breastfeeding is the ideal nutrition for a newborn’s integral necessities. It seems crucial therefore to know its composition in order to provide suitable infant formula when required. Of these, polyamines (with lactation and the microbiota being its intestinal source) are involved in the development of gut epithelium and immunity. Safety concerns limit human intervention studies. Therefore, we have studied whether the different amounts of polyamines supplied by breast milk (varying among mothers) or infant formulas feeding, up to day 30 postpartum, determine the polyamine content in newborn faeces. Independent samples (68) of breast milk from 59 healthy Caucasian woman (day 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 15 and 30 postpartum) who had natural deliveries after week 38, same day newborn faeces, when available (81 from breast milk and 55 from infant formula fed) and 6 infant formulas were determined by HPLC. In breast milk, polyamines and isoamylamine (a primary amine), with interindividual variations, increased over time with a higher content of spermidine (no other amines were present). Overall, they were much higher than in infant formula. By the 2nd week after birth the content of polyamines, cadaverine and tyramine, but not isoamylamine, in the faeces of infant formula were higher than in breast milk fed. Cadaverine and tyramine could be used to predict the type of newborns feeding used. The differences in the content may be related to distinct colonisation of amines-producer bacteria, to which polyamines could help establish. Further studies are required to determine the clinical utility of these findings.
The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of anatomical changes in prostate cancer patients on the target coverage when using 6 MV beams-VMAT therapy and to propose strategies that allow us to evaluate the dose or correct it by normalization without having to perform a new simulation.
Methods and materials:
Ten patients of high-risk prostate cancer were chosen for the study. All test plans were delivered using the same isocenter and monitor units as the original plan and compared against the original unedited plan. The expansion and contraction of body contours due to size changes was mimicked by increasing and decreasing the body contour with depths of −2, −1·5, …, 1·5, 2 cm, in the anterior, and both lateral directions of the patient. A total of 90 plans were evaluated, 9 for each patient. Dose-volume histogram statistics were extracted from each plan and normalized to prescription dose.
Weight changes resulted in considerable dose modifications to the target and critical structures. Plans were found to be varied with 2·9% ± 0·3% per cm SSD change for VMAT treatment with a correlation index close to one. Therefore, doses variations were linear to the changes of depth. Gamma index evaluation was performed for the 10 renormalized plans. All of them passed criteria of 3%/3 mm in at least 98.2% of points. Eight of them passed criteria in 99% points. Gamma index 4%/4 mm passed 100% points in all patients for the chosen region of interest.
The dosimetry estimation presented in this study shows important data for the radiation oncology staff to justify whether a CT rescan is necessary or not when a patient experiences weight changes during treatment. Based on the results of our study, discrepancies between real dose and planned dose were >5% for 1·7 cm of difference in external contour in the anterior and both lateral directions of the patient.
Preliminary evidence suggests that hoarding disorder (HD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) may show distinct patterns of brain activation during executive performance, although results have been inconclusive regarding the specific neural correlates of their differential executive dysfunction. In the current study, we aim to evaluate differences in brain activation between patients with HD, OCD and healthy controls (HCs) during response inhibition, response switching and error processing.
We assessed 17 patients with HD, 18 patients with OCD and 19 HCs. Executive processing was assessed inside a magnetic resonance scanner by means of two variants of a cognitive control protocol (i.e. stop- and switch-signal tasks), which allowed for the assessment of the aforementioned executive domains.
OCD patients performed similar to the HCs, differing only in the number of successful go trials in the switch-signal task. However, they showed an anomalous hyperactivation of the right rostral anterior cingulate cortex during error processing in the switch-signal task. Conversely, HD patients performed worse than OCD and HC participants in both tasks, showing an impulsive-like pattern of response (i.e. shorter reaction time and more commission errors). They also exhibited hyperactivation of the right lateral orbitofrontal cortex during successful response switching and abnormal deactivation of frontal regions during error processing in both tasks.
Our results support that patients with HD and OCD present dissimilar cognitive profiles, supported by distinct neural mechanisms. Specifically, while alterations in HD resemble an impulsive pattern of response, patients with OCD present increased error processing during response conflict protocols.
Polyphenols are a wide family of phytochemicals present in diverse foods. They might play a role in cancer development and progression. In vivo and in vitro studies have suggested beneficial properties and potential mechanisms. We aimed to evaluate the association between total and main classes of polyphenol intake and breast cancer (BC) risk in the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra project – a prospective Mediterranean cohort study. We included 10 713 middle-aged, Spanish female university graduates. Polyphenol intake was derived from a semi-quantitative FFQ and matching food consumption data from the Phenol-Explorer database. Women with self-reported BC were asked to return a copy of their medical report for confirmation purposes; death certificates were used for fatal cases. Cox models were fitted to estimate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI for the association between tertiles (T) of polyphenol intake and BC. After 10·3 years of median follow-up, 168 probable incident BC cases were identified, out of which 100 were confirmed. We found no association between polyphenol intake and the overall BC risk. Nevertheless, we observed a significant inverse association between total polyphenol intake and BC risk for postmenopausal women, either for probable or only for confirmed cases (HRT3 v. T1 0·31 (95 % CI 0·13, 0·77; Ptrend=0·010)). Also, phenolic acid intake was inversely associated with postmenopausal BC. In summary, we observed no significant association between total polyphenol intake and BC risk. Despite a low number of incident BC cases in our cohort, higher total polyphenol intake was associated with a lower risk of postmenopausal BC.
Archaeological investigations at Monte Bernorio (northern Spain) and its surroundings are yielding exciting new evidence for the destruction of the Iron Age oppidum by the Roman military and the subsequent Roman occupation of the area.
A 1.1-m reflectarray antenna has been designed, manufactured, and tested to fulfill the requirements of a satellite antenna in Ku-band that provides South-American coverage in Tx and Rx. The reflectarray cells consist of four dipoles for each polarization in two dielectric layers, selected because of their simplicity and high performance. The dipole dimensions are optimized in all the reflectarray cells to accomplish the prescribed radiation patterns, by iteratively calling an analysis routine based on method of moments in spectral domain and local periodicity. The measured radiation patterns of the manufactured antenna have been satisfactorily compared with simulations and with a three-layer reflectarray previously designed, manufactured, and tested for the same mission.
There are two major advantages of the Big Five Personality Trait Short Questionnaire (BFPTSQ) over other non-commercial short Five-Factor Model personality measures: widen conceptual breadth, and its use in both adolescents and adults. The aim of this study was to explore the psychometric properties of this questionnaire in an adult Spanish sample. Factor, convergent (using the NEO-PI-R), and criterion (using scales that assess happiness and alcohol consumption) validities, internal consistency as well as test-retest reliabilities of the BFPTSQ were evaluated. The sample was composed of 262 participants; a subsample of 71 individuals also answered the NEO-PI-R, and another subsample of 42 respondents filled the BFPTSQ out again a month later. The results indicated that the expected factor structure was recovered using exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM). The ESEM showed satisfactory fit indices, with CFI and TLI around .90, as well as RMSEA and SRMR below .06. Moreover, coefficient alphas ranged from .75 to .85 and test-retest correlations ranged from .72 to .93 (p < .001). Regarding the associations of BFPTSQ with NEO-PI-R scales, the correlations with the broad-trait scales ranged from .57 to .80 (p < .001), and 27 out of 30 correlations with the facet scales were significant (p < .05 or lower). We also found that extraversion and emotional stability were associated with subjective well-being (p < .001), and extraversion and conscientiousness were related to alcohol consumption (p < .01). This study supports the construct validity of the Spanish version of the BFPTSQ in adults.
Slushflows were first recorded in the Iberian Peninsula on 18 December 1997. Three slushflows were released at the ski resort of El Port del Comte, in the Catalan Pyrenees, northeast Spain, during intense rainfall. Two of the slushflows originated on the pistes, and the third affected another piste. Three ski lifts were damaged. This paper analyzes the hydrogeological characteristics of the massif, the geomorphic features of the terrain and the meteorological and snowpack conditions that caused the release of the slushflows. Man's role in triggering the slushflows by compacting snow on the pistes is also considered. Drainage control for reducing the hazard is outlined, taking into consideration the low frequency of the phenomenon.
This paper seeks to make an exploratory investigation regarding farmers who have been using an innovation for a relatively long period (established users), compared to farmers who have only recently started (recent users). Therefore, the aims of this research were to identify (i) the extent to which intentions, attitudes and social pressure are similar or different between these two groups and (ii) whether comparison of the groups can improve academic understanding and provide insights into what is influencing the uptake of innovations. The study was conducted with 80 farmers who are already engaged with the use of improved grassland. In order to develop an understanding of the differences in drivers of the adoption of new technology, the sample was divided into established users and recent users of the innovation. To identify differences between groups regarding farmer and farm characteristics, 11 quantitative variables were analysed through a dependent t-test. The theory of reasoned action (TRA) was used as a theoretical framework and the Spearman rank-order correlation was used in data analyses. To identify differences in farmers’ perceptions of the components of the TRA, we used the Mann–Whitney U test. The results showed that established users had stronger intention to use improved grassland in the next 12 months, which would be attributed to activity based on milk production as a main source of family income. Advantages of improved grassland included lower animal feeding expenses; increases in quantity, quality and availability of fodder production and increases in milk production. We concluded that established and recent users’ intention to use improved grassland over the 12 months was influenced in different ways. Established users’ intention to adopt was strongly influenced by normative beliefs, i.e. social pressure from salient referents, where the father, uncle and veterinarian played the most important role, whereas recent users’ intention was mainly influenced by behavioural beliefs (positive and negative beliefs regarding the innovation) and the variables that describe the farm characteristics, i.e. the advantages and disadvantages that farmers perceive of the use of improved grassland on their farms, which were also considered as drivers of adoption.
The Endangered Cuvier's gazelle Gazella cuvieri is an endemic ungulate of north-western Africa. Information on the species has been based primarily on non-systematic surveys, and the corresponding status estimates are of unknown quality. We evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of two field methods for systematic surveys of populations of Cuvier's gazelle in arid environments: distance sampling (based on sightings) and sampling indirect sign (tracks and scats). The work was carried out in the north-western Sahara Desert, in Morocco, where what is possibly the largest population of Cuvier's gazelle persists. A logistically viable survey was conducted over a total area of c. 20.000 km2 in 10 expeditions during 2011–2014. A total of 67 sites were surveyed, with 194 walking surveys (2,169 km in total). Gazelle signs were detected at 50 sites, and gazelles were sighted at 21 sites (61 individuals). We found a relationship between sightings and abundance indices based on indirect sign, which could be useful for population monitoring or ecological studies. Additionally, the data could be used in occupancy modelling. Density estimates based on distance sampling required considerable effort; however, it is possible to survey large areas during relatively short campaigns, and this proved to be the most useful approach to obtain data on the demographic structure of the population.
The northern regions of the Iberian Peninsula have traditionally been excluded in international debates on Iron Age urbanisation. However, the hillforts and oppida of the Cantabrian area show considerable similarities to the situation found in wide parts of Temperate Europe during the 1st millennium bc. One of the most important centres is the oppidum of Monte Bernorio, which was occupied between the Late Bronze Age and the Roman Conquest. This paper offers a first overview of the archaeological fieldwork carried out over the last decade, which has revealed the existence of an extremely complex and extensive system of multivallate fortifications enclosing an area of about 90 ha. Therefore, it is one of the largest Iron Age fortified sites of the whole of the Iberian Peninsula. The material culture recovered at the settlement – including large amounts of pottery, animal remains, metal objects, and glass beads – testifies both local production and long-distance networks. Moreover, the recovery of a tessera hospitalis with written text constitutes a prime example of the existence of legally sanctioned ‘citizenship rights’ among the pre-Roman communities of the Cantabrian area. Finally, recent discoveries at the oppidum itself and at the nearby Roman military camp of El Castillejo indicate a siege and conquest by the Roman army in the course of the Cantabrian Wars led by Emperor Augustus in the 20s BC. The evidence points towards the existence of one of the major battlefields of Rome’s imperial expansion in the West.
In September 2005, an accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) system based on a 1MV Tandetron accelerator arrived at the Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (CNA). One of the main research programs for this AMS facility is based on radiocarbon. At the same time as the AMS facility was installed and tested, the 14C sample preparation laboratory was designed and set up. A graphitization line that allows the preparation of 5 samples in parallel was designed and built in October 2006. The first months were mainly dedicated to check and optimize all the sample processing. For such a task, several reference samples have been prepared and measured. Since the beginning of 2007, the laboratory has been fully operational and is currently performing as a service for the scientific community. During 2007, nearly 100 unknown samples were prepared and measured in our AMS system. Most of them were for dating purposes, but also other applications were investigated. The performance of the 14C laboratory and dating service will be shown, with some examples as illustration.
Prospective studies assessing the association between fibre intake or fibre-rich food consumption and the risk of CVD have often been limited by baseline assessment of diet. Thus far, no study has used yearly repeated measurements of dietary changes during follow-up. Moreover, previous studies included healthy and selected participants who did not represent subjects at high cardiovascular risk. We used yearly repeated measurements of diet to investigate the association between fibre intake and CVD in a Mediterranean cohort of elderly adults at high cardiovascular risk. We followed-up 7216 men (55–80 years) and women (60–80 years) initially free of CVD for up to 7 years in the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea study (registered as ISRCTN35739639). A 137-item validated FFQ was repeated yearly to assess diet. The primary end point, confirmed by a blinded ad hoc Event Adjudication Committee, was a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction and stroke. Time-dependent Cox’s regression models were used to estimate the risk of CVD according to baseline dietary exposures and to their yearly updated changes. We found a significant inverse association for fibre (Pfor trend=0·020) and fruits (Pfor trend=0·024) in age-sex adjusted models, but the statistical significance was lost in fully adjusted models. However, we found a significant inverse association with CVD incidence for the sum of fruit and vegetable consumption. Participants who consumed in total nine or more servings/d of fruits plus vegetables had a hazard ratio 0·60 (95 % CI 0·40, 0·96) of CVD in comparison with those consuming <5 servings/d.
Zinc oxide thin films were prepared via the sol-gel spin-coating method with the use of a spin processor. The film’s annealing parameters were varied to study their impact on the final film morphology and electrical properties. Characterization of the structural properties of the samples was carried on a X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy. Electrical characterization was obtained with the use of a four point probe. Optical characterization of the samples was carried on a UV-Vis-NIR Spectrophotometer. Samples annealed under a cover are observed to have a higher transmission percentage on the visible light range while having a very small grain size and small relative resistivity. Samples annealed under standard atmospheric conditions show a larger grain size and resistivity, and correlated to it, a smaller transmission percentage. Samples annealed under vacuum prove to have a much more reduced optical, electrical, and structural properties when compared to the rest of the samples.
Group violence among Latin American immigrant youth has led to ongoing debates in political, legal, and media circles, yet none of those many perspectives has arrived at a solid, empirically supported definition for the phenomenon. This study aims to explore the relationship between the immigrant experience and violent group behavior in youths from Latin America serving prison sentences in Justice Enforcement Centers in the Community of Madrid. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 19 juveniles, and content analysis was applied to the resulting transcripts, employing Grounded Theory to create an axial codification of intra- and inter-categorical contents, and Delphi panels for quality control. The research team delved into 62 topics, addressing participants’ perceptions of the immigrant experience and its effects on five socialization settings (neighborhood, school, family, peer group, and significant other), and each one’s relationship to violent behavior. The results led us to believe the young people’s immigration experiences had been systematically examined. Their personal and social development was influenced by negative socioeconomic conditions, ineffective parental supervision, maladjustment and conflict at school, and experiences of marginalization and xenophobia. All those conditions favored affiliation with violent groups that provided them instrumental (economic and material), expressive, or affective support.
Little is known about the clustering patterns of lifestyle behaviours in adult populations. We explored clusters in multiple lifestyle behaviours including physical activity (PA), smoking, alcohol use and eating habits in a sample of adult population. A cross-sectional and multi-centre study was performed with six participating groups distributed throughout Spain. Participants (n 1327) were part of the Lifestyles and Endothelial Dysfunction (EVIDENT) study and were aged between 20 and 80 years. The lifestyle and cardiovascular risk (CVR) factors were analysed using a clustering method based on the HJ-biplot coordinates to understand the variables underlying these groupings. The following three clusters were identified. Cluster 1: unhealthy, 677 subjects (51 %), with a slight majority of men (58·7 %), who were more sedentary and smokers with higher consumption of whole-fat dairy products, bigger waist circumference as well as higher TAG levels, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and CVR. Cluster 2: healthy/PA, 265 subjects (20 %), including 24·0 % of males with high PA. Cluster 3: healthy/diet, including 29 % of the participants, with a higher consumption of olive oil, fish, fruits, nuts, vegetables and lower alcohol consumption. Using the unhealthy cluster as a reference, and after adjusting for age and sex, the multiple regression analysis showed that belonging to the healthy/PA cluster was associated with a lower waist circumference, body fat percentage, SBP and CVR. In summary, the three clusters were identified according to lifestyles. The ‘unhealthy’ cluster had the least favourable clinical parameters, the ‘healthy/PA’ cluster had good HDL-cholesterol levels and low SBP and the ‘healthy/diet’ cluster had lower LDL-cholesterol levels and clinical blood pressure.