To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
To investigate if depression risk modifies the association between frailty and mortality in older adults.
Ongoing cohort study.
Albacete city, Spain
Eight hundred subjects, 58.8% women, over 70 years of age from the Frailty and Dependence in Albacete (FRADEA) study.
Frailty phenotype, Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), comorbidity, disability, and drug use were collected at baseline. Six groups were categorized: (G1: non-frail/no depression risk; G2: non-frail/depression risk; G3: prefrail/no depression risk; G4: prefrail/depression risk; G5: frail/no depression risk; and G6: frail/depression risk). Mean follow-up was 2542 days (SD 1006). GDS was also analyzed as a continuous variable. The association between frailty and depression risk with 10-year mortality was analyzed.
Mean age was 78.5 years. Non-frail was 24.5%, prefrail 56.3%, frail 19.3%, and 33.5% at depression risk. Mean GDS score was 3.7 (SD 3.2), increasing with the number of frailty criteria (p < 0.001). Ten-year mortality rate was 44.9%. Mortality was 21.4% for the non-frail, 45.6% for the prefrail, and 72.7% for the frail participants, 56% for those with depression risk, and 39.3% for those without depression risk. Mean survival times for groups G1 to G6 were, respectively, 3390, 3437, 2897, 2554, 1887, and 1931 days. Adjusted mortality risk was higher for groups G3 (HR 2.1; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4–3.1), G4 (HR 2.5; 95% CI 1.7–3.8), G5 (HR 3.8; 95% CI 2.4–6.1), and G6 (HR 4.0; 95% CI 2.6–6.2), compared with G1 (p < 0.001). Interaction was found between frailty and depression risk, although they were independently associated with mortality.
Depression risk increases mortality risk in prefrail older adults but not in non-frail and frail ones. Depression should be monitored in these older adults to optimize health outcomes. Factors modulating the relationship between frailty and depression should be explored in future studies.
β-Alanine and its derivatives are important starting materials for the preparation of peptides or compounds with biological activity. In this work, the authors are presenting a new approach for the synthesis of N-alkyl-β-amino acids and N-alkyl-β-amino esters using dendrimeric intermediates in a one-pot reaction, with friendly reaction conditions. Dendrimeric compounds, with a pentaerythritol core, were easy prepared and used to obtain the β-amino acid derivatives and β-amino esters with good yields. This paper presents the first reaction where dendrimers are used for synthesizing organic compounds. Spectroscopic characterization by 1H- and 13C-NMR of dendrimers and final products is also presented.
– To describe the utilization, geographical variations and adaptation of ECT in the Spanish context.
– A cross-sectional study, involving a questionnaire delivered to all hospitals with a Psychiatry Unit (PU) in Spain included in the National Hospitals Catalogue (N = 233). A descriptive analysis was made of the answers to the different questions, using an adequate denominator in each case: all PUs (n = 233), those units that prescribe and apply ECT (n = 174), or only those that apply the technology (n = 108).
– All PUs completed the questionnaire. Fifty-nine units (25.3%) neither prescribed nor applied ECT, while 108 (46.4%) prescribed and applied the technology, and 66 PUs (28.3%) only prescribed ECT. Those units with training responsibilities for psychiatry residents or pregraduate students, and those with a larger number of beds, were more inclined to apply ECT. The estimated ECT applied in the preceding 12 months totaled 2435 with an annual rate per 10,000 inhabitants of 0.61, and a range per Spanish Autonomous Community of 0.28–16.59.
– We now know a reliable rate and characteristics of the use of ECT in Spain, and the attitudes and opinion of PUs Spanish psychiatrists about it. We found a very important variability in ECT application rates among Autonomous Communities.
This research communication addresses the hypothesis that in dual-purpose goats, exposure to 1 h of extra-light given from 16 to 17 h after dawn (pulse of light) in winter stimulates milk yield. One group of goats was maintained under natural short photoperiod (natural day; ND (n = 7)). Another group of lactating females was submitted to an artificial long-day photoperiod consisting of 16 h light and 8 h darkness (long days; LD (n = 7)). A third group of females received one single hour of extra-light 16 h after the fixed dawn (pulse of light; PL (n = 6)). Goats from LD and PL yielded 30% more milk than goats from ND. Mean percentages of fat, protein and lactose contents in milk did not differ between the 3 groups at any stage of lactation, but these components in grams/day were higher in goats from PL than in the others two groups within the first 45 d of lactation. In conclusion, dual-purpose lactating goats that started their lactation during natural short days, the daily exposition to a 1-h pulse of light is sufficient to stimulate milk yield compared to females maintained under natural short photoperiod.
The aim of this research was to study the learning process using an objective and computerized task. The performance of 466 schoolchildren aged between 6 and 11 in a category learning task, the Category Learning Test (CLT), was examined. The results showed evidence of category learning throughout the trials for the whole sample, F(7, 469) = 29.979, p <.001. In addition, categorization performance improved with age, H(2) = 48.475, p <.001. However, there were old children that struggled with the task and young children that performed very well. The ability to learn the categories was related to the children’s behavior when trying to solve the task: the response speed (r = –.217, p <.01) and the organization index (r = .247, p <.01). Nevertheless, performance in the task and academic marks were not related. We discuss the impact of these findings on the promotion and improvement of learning in schools: an intervention to promote slowness and organization might help some children to learn.
Even though AA 7075 is an aluminum alloy with high mechanical properties, it is not often applied in manufacturing. This is so, because it is considered as very difficult to produce defect free welded joints. This is so, because this alloy has a tendency to hot cracking. The metallurgical problems that appear during welding of AA 7075 have not been fully solved but they have been reduced by applying alloys such as: 4043 and 5356 as filler metals. However, in literature there is little information about the metallurgical effects of these types of filler metals applied in arc welded joints of AA7075. This is especially true for Tungsten Inert gas welding. Therefore, this work is focused in comparing the microstructure and Vickers microhardness in weldments of AA 7075 with ER4043, ER5356 and AA7075 as filler metals. Besides, a set of welded joints with the three different filler metals were quenched after welding in order to modify the final microstructure. The results were evaluated by microstructural analysis focused on the Heat Affected Zone and Vickers microhardness and they were compared among them.
To translate, culturally adapt, and psychometrically evaluate the Spanish version of the “Scale for End-of Life Caregiving Appraisal” (SEOLCAS).
Observational cross-sectional study. Convenience sample of 201 informal end-of-life caregivers recruited in a southern Spanish hospital. The reliability of the questionnaire was assessed through its internal consistency (Cronbach's α) and temporal stability (Pearson's correlation coefficient [r] between test-retest). The content validity index of the items and the scale was calculated. Criterion validity was explored through performing a linear regression analysis to evaluate the SEOLCAS’ predictive validity. Exploratory factor analysis was used to examine its construct validity.
The SEOLCAS’ reliability was very high (Cronbach's α = 0.92). Its content validity was excellent (all items’ content validity index = 0.8–1; scale's validity index = 0.88). Evidence of the SEOLCAS’ criterion validity showed that the participants’ scores on the SEOLCAS explained approximately 79.3% of the between-subject variation of their results on the Zarit Burden Interview. Exploratory factor analysis provided evidence of the SEOLCAS’ construct validity. This analysis revealed that two factors (“internal contingencies” and “external contingencies”) explained 53.77% of the total variance found and reflected the stoic Hispanic attitude toward adversity.
Significance of results
The Spanish version of the SEOLCAS has shown to be an easily applicable, valid, reliable, and culturally appropriate tool to measure the impact of end-of-life care provision on Hispanic informal caregivers. This tool offers healthcare professionals the opportunity to easily explore Hispanic informal end-of-life caregivers’ experiences and discover the type of support they may need (instrumental or emotional) even when there are communicational and organizational constraints.
The aim of this study was to develop and to assess a specific Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) framework to evaluate new drugs in an hospital pharmacy and therapeutics committee (P&TC) setting.
A pilot criteria framework was developed based on the EVIDEM (Evidence and Value: Impact on DEcisionMaking) framework, together with other relevant criteria, and assessed by a group of P&TC's members. The weighting of included criteria was done using a 5-point weighting technique. Two drugs were chosen by evaluation: an orphan-drug for Gaucher disease, and a nonorphan drug for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Evidence matrices were developed, and value contribution of each drug was evaluated by P&TC's members. An agreed final framework was obtained through a discussion between the P&TC's members.
After criteria assessment, the pilot framework included eight quantitative criteria: “disease severity,” “unmet needs,” “comparative efficacy/effectiveness,” “comparative safety/tolerability,” “comparative patient-reported outcomes,” “comparative cost consequences-cost of treatment,” “comparative cost consequences-other medical costs,” and “quality of evidence”; and one contextual criterion: “opportunity costs and affordability.” The most valued criteria were: “comparative safety/tolerability,” “disease severity,” and “comparative efficacy/effectiveness.” When assessing the drugs most valued characteristics of the MCDA were the possibility that all team may contribute to drug assessment by means of scoring the matrices and the discussion to reach a consensus in drug positioning and value decision making.
The reflective MCDA would integrate quantitative and qualitative criteria relevant for a P&TC setting, allowing reflective discussions based on the criteria weighting score.
To evaluate the influence of acute restraint stress (ARS) on plasma enkephalinase and oxytocinase activities. ARS modifies basal activities in cortico-limbic regions of rats and induces changes in the correlations observed between these regions. The interactions between plasma and cortico-limbic activities will be also evaluated.
Enkephalinase (AlaAP and LeuAP) and oxytocinase (P-LeuAP) activities were fluorometrically determined in plasma of control and stressed rats using aminoacyl-β-naphthylamides (aaNNap), AlaNNap and LeuNNap as substrates.
No differences in enzymatic activities were observed between control and stressed animals in plasma. In contrast, highly significant positive and negative correlations between plasma and cortico-limbic regions were demonstrated in controls. Stress conditions significantly alter the pattern of these correlations.
The present results clearly support a connection between plasma and brain involving certain neuropeptidase activities that change under stress conditions.
During the Middle Paleolithic period, carnivores and hominids periodically occupied the same areas at different times and each predator generated significant palimpsests, rendering difficult their archaeological interpretation. Teixoneres Cave, a carnivore den site, located in the northeastern part of the Iberian Peninsula, demonstrates that it is possible to overcome these problems by using a careful strategy in selecting samples for radiocarbon dating, in order to produce an accurate chronology of the site in question and certainly attest the human occupation.
A brooding Octopus vulgaris female was monitored for 128 days in her natural habitat. The main reproductive events and embryonic development in relation to the temperature inside the spawning den, which was recorded by long-battery-life mini-data loggers, are described in the wild. The den temperature ranged from 12.9 to 19.3°C. The total number of egg strings was 160, and the total number of eggs spawned ranged between 139,040 and 241,760 (mean 190,400). The brooding period, the egg laying interval and the duration of the hatching course lasted 128, 35 and 43 days, respectively. Both egg laying and hatching were intermittent processes. The time taken for embryonic development was variable (85–128 d) and depended on the laying date, temperature and position of the string in the egg cluster and the position of the egg in the egg string. The first hatching observed occurred after a progressive and gradual increase of the temperature from 14.9 to 19.3°C. The 280 min of video recordings taken by scuba divers showed that several times, this female opened and closed a small window in the obstructions of the den entrance to facilitate a way out for the hatchling batches.
Murcian Spanish (MuSp) is a regional variety of Spanish spoken in the Comunidad Autónoma de Murcia in south-eastern Spain. It is commonly heard in the capital city, Murcia, with 450,000 inhabitants, situated in the Segura River plain (Central Zone), and in a number of towns like Cartagena (Coastal Zone), Yecla and Jumilla (Altiplano or High Plateau Zone), Lorca and Águilas (Guadalentín River Zone), and Caravaca and Calasparra (North-western Zone). The overall population of the region amounts to well over 1,100,000 inhabitants (Hernández-Campoy 2003: 621).
Zinc Oxide (ZnO) Thin-Film Transistors (TFTs) using Aluminum (Al) and Aluminum-doped zinc Oxide (AZO) as Source-Drain (S-D) contacts are reported. The fabrication process was carried out using five photolithography steps with a maximum processing temperature of 100 °C, which makes the process compatible with flexible/transparent applications. The AZO and ZnO films were deposited using Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD). Aluminum was deposited using ebeam. The devices showed mobilities >10 cm2/V-s, threshold voltage in the range of 7 V and On/Off current ratios >105. The resistance analysis showed that AZO is a better contact with lower contact resistance as identified in the TFTs. The AZO and ZnO stacks characterized by UV-V shows an optical transmission >80 %.
We report experiments in which a flow rate of a fluid with a viscosity discharges into an immiscible liquid of viscosity that flows in parallel with the axis of the injector. When the outer capillary number verifies the condition , where and indicate, respectively, the outer velocity and the interfacial tension coefficient, and if the inner-to-outer velocity ratio is such that , with the inner radius of the injector, a jet is formed with the same type of cone–jet geometry as predicted by the numerical results of Suryo & Basaran (Phys. Fluids, vol. 18, 2006, p. 082102). For extremely low values of the velocity ratio , we find that the diameter of the jet emanating from the tip of the cone is so small that drops with sizes below can be formed. We also show that, through this simple method, concentrated emulsions composed of micrometre-sized drops with a narrow size distribution can be generated. Moreover, thanks to the information extracted from numerical simulations of boundary-integral type and using the slender-body approximation due to Taylor (Proceedings of the 11th International Congress of Applied Mechanics, Munich, 1964, pp. 790–796), we deduce a third-order, ordinary differential equation that predicts, for arbitrary values of the three dimensionless numbers that control this physical situation, namely, , and , the shape of the jet and the sizes of the drops generated. Most interestingly, the influence of the geometry of the injector system on the jet shape and drop size enters explicitly into the third-order differential equation through two functions that can be easily calculated numerically. Therefore, our theory can be used as an efficient tool for the design of new emulsification devices.
Integration between phylogenetic systematics and paleontological data has proved to be an effective method for identifying periods that lack fossil evidence in the evolutionary history of clades. In this study we aim to analyze whether there is any correlation between various ecomorphological variables and the duration of these underrepresented portions of lineages, which we call ghost lineages for simplicity, in ruminants. Analyses within phylogenetic (Generalized Estimating Equations) and non-phylogenetic (ANOVAs and Pearson correlations) frameworks were performed on the whole phylogeny of this suborder of Cetartiodactyla (Mammalia). This is the first time ghost lineages are focused in this way. To test the robustness of our data, we compared the magnitude of ghost lineages among different continents and among phylogenies pruned at different ages (4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 Ma). Differences in mean ghost lineage were not significantly related to either geographic or temporal factors. Our results indicate that the proportion of the known fossil record in ruminants appears to be influenced by the preservation potential of the bone remains in different environments. Furthermore, large geographical ranges of species increase the likelihood of preservation.