Cognitive aging is a heterogeneous reality among the senior population. Studies have recently identified certain factors that may contribute to maintaining the cognitive health of seniors. To date, these research studies have primarily focused on individual determinants, namely: health conditions and lifestyle habits. A review of the literature was conducted in order to explore the socio-environmental factors that may influence the cognitive vitality of seniors. This review demonstrates that studies that have examined this potential link are very rare. Only the type and socioeconomic level of the neighbourhood of the residence, as well as the size of the social network, were identified as influential factors. However, studies have shown that the environment could modulate certain lifestyle habits which, in turn, can influence cognition. This article uses an ecological approach to illustrate individual and socio-environmental targets for the promotion of the cognitive health of seniors.