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Here, we report that a marine sandworm Nereis virens jaw protein, Nvjp1, nucleates hemozoin with similar activity as the native parasite hemozoin protein, HisRPII. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy confirm the identity of the hemozoin produced from Nvjp1-containing reactions. Finally, we observed that nAl assembled with hemozoin from Nvjp1 reactions has a substantially higher energetic output when compared to analogous thermite from the synthetic standard or HisRPII-nucleated hemozoin. Our results demonstrate that a marine sandworm protein can nucleate malaria pigment and set the stage for engineering recombinant hemozoin production for nanoenergetic applications.
Winter cooling and persistent mixing for more than a quarter of year (November to early March) along the North Eastern Arabian Sea (NEAS) results in nutrient enrichment of the euphotic column thereby triggering biological production. Hydrographic characteristics of NEAS during Late Winter Monsoon (LWM) and Early Spring Inter Monsoon (ESIM) and the influence on biological production are overviewed here. Winter convective mixing signatures were evident during LWM with low SST (24°C), high SSS (36.4), deep mixed layers (>100 m) and increased surface nitrate (~1 µM). Open ocean waters observed high chlorophyll a (1–2 mg m−3) and microphytoplankton abundance (1.2–1.5 × 104 cells l−1). Diatoms and green Noctiluca scintillans were the major microphytoplankton identified. ESIM observed gradual stabilization of water column with curtailment of winter signatures and strengthening of Noctiluca scintillans blooms. Mesozooplankton biomass was higher during LWM and decreased towards ESIM with intensification of Noctiluca blooms. However during ESIM, abundance of gelatinous zooplankton occurred in the bloom region. Inter-annual variations were observed in the biological responses along with the hydrographic changes. Thus the convective process during winter monsoon and stabilization of the water column during ESIM plays a significant role in the production pattern of NEAS.
A scalable approach for synthesis of ultra-thin (<10 nm) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMD) films on stretchable polymeric materials is presented. Specifically, magnetron sputtering from pure TMD targets, such as MoS2 and WS2, was used for growth of amorphous precursor films at room temperature on polydimethylsiloxane substrates. Stacks of different TMD films were grown upon each other and integrated with optically transparent insulating layers such as boron nitride. These precursor films were subsequently laser annealed to form high quality, few-layer crystalline TMDs. This combination of sputtering and laser annealing is commercially scalable and lends itself well to patterning. Analysis by Raman spectroscopy, scanning probe, optical, and transmission electron microscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirm our assertions and illustrate annealing mechanisms. Electrical properties of simple devices built on flexible substrates are correlated to annealing processes. This new approach is a significant step toward commercial-scale stretchable 2D heterostructured nanoelectronic devices.
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