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In dementia patients, dietary intake problems may occur despite the absence of swallowing problems. We investigated cognitive functions on food and taste in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) patients.
Participants included 15 healthy controls (HC), 30 AD and 20 VaD patients. Food Cognition Test: Replicas of three popular foods in Japan with no odors were presented visually to each participant, with the instruction to respond with the name of each food. Replicas of food materials were subsequently presented to ask whether they were included in these foods. Taste Cognition Test: Replicas of 12 kinds of foods were presented to describe their expected tastes.
The AD/VaD groups exhibited significantly lower scores on Food/Taste Cognition Tests compared with the HC group. These scores correlated inversely with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores in the AD group. Decreased dietary intake was observed in 12 of the 50 patients; 8 of the 12 exhibited decreased Taste Cognition Test scores, higher than that of the normal-intake patients. There was no difference in the filter paper taste disc test between HC/AD/VaD groups. To test the hypothesis that the insula is associated with taste cognition, two MMSE-matched AD subgroups (n = 10 vs. 10) underwent positron emission tomography. Glucose metabolism in the right insula was lower in the low taste cognition subgroup. The VaD patients with insular lesions exhibited impaired Taste Cognition Test findings.
It is important to consider the cognitive aspect of dietary intake when we care for dementia patients.
We determined the most probable atomistic structure of an ultra-low-k material (k≅ 2.5) by computer simulations. Among the candidate structures generated by a molecular-dynamics calculation, the most probable one that reproduces the observed properties was selected using a first-principles density-functional-theory calculation. The candidate structures consisted of Si-O-Si network with some silicon atoms, each of which had a CH3 group or a hydrogen atom bonded. The structure with CH3 groups but no hydrogen atom reproduced the experimental properties best. This structure was then used to investigate the behaviors of the material irradiated with ultraviolet light.
Recent transcriptomics studies on the effect of long-term or severe energy restriction (ER) have revealed that many genes are dynamically modulated by this condition in rodents. The present study was conducted to define the global gene expression profile in response to mild ER treatment. Growing rats were fed with reduced amount of diet (5–30 % ER) for 1 week or 1 month. Using DNA microarray analysis of the liver, seventy-two genes that were consistently changed through the different ER levels were identified. Many were related to lipid metabolism including genes encoding key enzymes such as carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 and fatty acid synthase. Interestingly, a number of genes were altered even by 5 % ER for 1 week where no differences in weight gain were observed. The information obtained in the present study can be used as a valuable reference data source in the transcriptomics studies of food and nutrition in which subtle differences in food intake sometimes hinder appropriate interpretation of the data.
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