To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Excessive worry is a common phenomenon. Our research group has previously developed an online intervention for excessive worry based on operant principles of extinction (IbET; internet-based extinction therapy) and tested it against a waiting-list. The aim of this study was to evaluate IbET against an active control comparator (CTRL).
A 10-week parallel participant blind randomised controlled trial with health-economical evaluation and mediation analyses. Participants (N = 311) were randomised (ratio 4.5:4.5:1) to IbET, to CTRL (an internet-based stress-management training program) or to waiting-list. The nation-wide trial included self-referred adults with excessive worry. The primary outcome was change in worry assessed with the Penn State Worry Questionnaire from baseline to 10 weeks.
IbET had greater reductions in worry compared to CTRL [−3.6 point difference, (95% CI −2.4 to −4.9)] and also a significantly larger degree of treatment responders [63% v. 51%; risk ratio = 1.24 (95% CI 1.01–1.53)]. Both IbET and CTRL made large reductions in worry compared to waiting-list and effects were sustained up to 1 year. Treatment credibility, therapist attention, compliance and working alliance were equal between IbET and CTRL. Data attrition was 4% at the primary endpoint. The effects of IbET were mediated by the hypothesized causal mechanism (reduced thought suppression) but not by competing mediators. Health-economical evaluation indicated that IbET had a 99% chance of being cost-effective compared to CTRL given societal willingness to pay of 1000€.
IbET is more effective than active comparator to treat excessive worry. Replication and extensions to real-world setting are warranted.
Cecilia Johansson, Department of Clinical Immunology, University of Goteborg, Guldhedsgatan 10A, Goteborg SE-413 46, Sweden,
Malin Sundquist, Department of Clinical Immunology, University of Goteborg, Guldhedsgatan 10A, Goteborg SE-413 46, Sweden,
Mary Jo Wick, Department of Clinical Immunology, University of Goteborg, Guldhedsgatan 10A, Goteborg SE-413 46, Sweden
Dendritic cells (DC) are efficient antigen-presenting cells and are likely to be involved in the initiation of T-cell responses to Salmonella. However, it is not known what type of DC initiate immune responses to Salmonella or where this initiation takes place. Studies on interactions between Salmonella and DC are emerging and are shedding light on this topic. This chapter will review how Salmonella interacts with DC, following the course the bacteria take after oral infection. One of the earliest sites of Salmonella replication is within the Peyer's patches of the gut. Thereafter, Salmonella can be found in the gut-draining mesenteric lymph nodes. After systemic release of bacteria or bacteria-containing cells, Salmonella spread to the spleen and liver and replicate further. The relevance of the interactions between Salmonella and DC in these organs for initiating antibacterial T-cell responses is discussed. This is preceded by a brief overview of the biology of DC.
DC originate from precursors in the bone marrow and were named because of their morphology having long, branched dendrites (Steinman and Cohn, 1973; Steinman et al., 1974). DC are widely distributed in lymphoid as well as non-lymphoid tissues (Steptoe et al., 2000; Vremec and Shortman, 1997; Steiniger et al., 1984).
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.