To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Occupational segregation is evident in both the United Kingdom and the United States. Occupational segregation by gender is linked closely to income inequality. Despite great changes in the labour market, including a significant increase in women entering paid work, many occupations continue to be occupied primarily by women or by men and there appears to be a negative relationship between the wages an occupation pays and the share of women who engage in that occupation.
Women workers are much more likely to be part-time than other forms of non-standard working. In the United Kingdom, for example, some 43 per cent of employed women work part-time compared with 13 per cent of working men, but this is a worldwide phenomenon. Part-time work is a costly work option for women limiting both their incomes and careers. We consider this and the potential issues associated with flexible working.
Two trends – an ageing population and increasing income inequality – complicate the task of meeting the needs of those approaching or in retirement. Crafting effective regulatory responses, however, requires considering the causes of unequal outcomes in later life, especially the gender and other dimensions of the problem. Women workers suffer multiple disadvantages during their working lives, which result in significantly poorer outcomes in old age in comparison to men. This book sets forth our model of lifetime disadvantage, which captures the way in which gender and other factors play out in the lives of girls and women. Law and policy in the United Kingdom and United States fail to neutralise this complex, cumulative, temporally amplified gender disadvantage. We hypothesise that solutions are hampered by regulatory efforts that are disjointed and incremental. Real retirement equality requires that the vulnerability-producing conditions confronting women workers be tackled in a comprehensive and context-sensitive manner. Legal and policy paradigms geared to women’s life course are necessary.
In this book we are concerned with the financial inequalities that affect women in later life and the reasons for those inequalities which pervade the life course. Here we consider further the position of older women in the labour market and the continuing financial penalties associated with work and marital status that result in lower incomes and lesser assets in later life.
Our model begins with a focus on the foundational experiences of girls and young women, which may decisively and negatively impact their career trajectories and earning potential. Whilst education and training is an area where there have been global advances, significant gender-based deficiencies remain. In the developing world, significant obstacles to educational access are experienced by many children, especially girls. In contrast, in developed countries, girls and young women are failing in large numbers to train for traditionally male-dominated and lucrative careers in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematical fields. By focusing on outcomes, and accounting for the causal aspects of educational gender disparities – the role of families, schools, and the societal norms – policymakers may begin to craft more effective solutions for the challenges that remain.
The concern in this chapter is, first, the limits placed upon women in their career development as a result of stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination. We look at the ideas around the so-called glass ceiling for women and the possible means of overcoming this by looking at different country approaches to the issue of having a quota system. We also consider the linked issue of unequal pay and consider why the gender pay gap and the maternity pay gap continue in all countries. The gender pay gap exists in most countries and women tend to predominate in low-pay sectors or occupations. Amongst the reasons given are that women and men work in sex-segregated occupations, reward mechanisms affect female and male workers differently, women’s skills and work are undervalued, few women occupy leadership positions either in policymaking or in the labour force, gender roles and traditions shape educational choices and working patterns, women on average carry greater family responsibilities and so work fewer hours than men, and women are the victims of discrimination.
There is a historical assumption that it is women who have the dominant role in caring for children, the disabled, and the infirm, and certainly this is supported by statistics. Women are much more likely to be in unpaid and economically unvalued work compared to men. This includes a greater likelihood of taking on caring responsibilities. Women are more likely than men to take on these caregiving roles, and this chapter is concerned with looking at the picture when caregiving is given to the young, the elderly, and the infirm. We consider who gives this care and what the effect on careers and income can be and then examine some of the piecemeal legal responses available in the contrasting jurisdictions of the United Kingdom and the United States.
Here we are concerned with gender and age discrimination and stereotyping. Gender stereotypes are the result of assumed male and female characteristics which influence not only people in choosing and developing their careers but also those that make decisions affecting male and female employees. Older age is also full of negative stereotyping, and there is some evidence that women suffer further disadvantages by being perceived to age earlier than men and being more likely to be affected by prejudice based on appearance rather than ability. We also consider what is meant by multiple discrimination and what the cumulative effect of being the subject of age and gender discrimination is.
Women’s lifetime disadvantage is illustrated by the model set forth in this book. In the United Kingdom and the United States, legal and policy efforts to address the issues associated with the model’s ten factors have proven anaemic at best. We have argued that these shortfalls are the result of law and policymaking that is characterised by disjointed incrementalism, and that fails to be anchored to overarching goals. In this final chapter, we consider how our countries might transcend and vanquish lifetime disadvantage. To this end, we look at theory in two ways. First, theory may assist us in understanding the problems girls and women confront. Second, theory might serve to catalyse legal and policy reform. In thinking about why working women experience disadvantage, we briefly examine rationalist economics, sociological approaches, and comparative institutional approaches to understanding women’s pay gap with men. We then consider vulnerability theory in order to demonstrate how one might ground a holistic and life course approach to the problem of women’s poverty in retirement with a theory designed to enhance work life for all.
Lifetime Disadvantage, Discrimination and the Gendered Workforce fills a gap in the literature on discrimination and disadvantage suffered by women at work by focusing on the inadequacies of the current law and the need for a new holistic approach. Each stage of the working life cycle for women is examined with a critical consideration of how the law attempts to address the problems that inhibit women's labour force participation. By using their model of lifetime disadvantage, the authors show how the law adopts an incremental and disjointed approach to resolving the challenges, and argue that a more holistic orientation towards eliminating women's discrimination and disadvantage is required before true gender equality can be achieved. Using the concept of resilience from vulnerability theory, the authors advocate a reconfigured workplace that acknowledges yet transcends gender.
This volume of essays is concerned with the discrimination against older people that results from a failure to recognise their diversity. By considering the unique combinations of discrimination that arise from the interrelationship of age and gender, pensions, ethnicity, sexual orientation, socio-economic class and disability, the contributors demonstrate that the discrimination suffered is multiple in nature. It is the combination of these characteristics that leads to the need for more complex ways of tackling age discrimination.
To be an older bisexual, gay, lesbian or transgender person is potentially to suffer from multiple discrimination. Terry Kaelbar, Executive Director of SAGE (Senior Action in a Gay Environment) summed up the issues in the USA and elsewhere:
Aging for GLBT seniors is informed by discrimination and anti gay bigotry, which impacts our ability and willingness to access needed programs and services as we age. It is informed by the fact that we, by and large, age as single people without the traditional familial supports of a spouse or children, supports available to the vast majority of heterosexual seniors, which makes us more reliant on the programs that we are not so willing to access. GLBT aging is informed by . . . our invisibility; with care providers who assume that all old people are straight, one of many heterosexist assumptions.
The subject of this chapter is older people who are lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender and the disadvantage that they suffer because of the combination of their age and their sexual preferences/sexual identity. The acronyms LGB and LGBT are used to identify all these groups who are united in the sense that they are identified by their sexual orientation. This at least is the case with lesbians, gay men and bisexuals and may be the case with transgender people. Transgenders are usually included in the grouping but do have significantly different issues to deal with.