Paralana is an active, radon-containing hot spring situated in a region of South Australia's Flinders Ranges with a long history of hydrothermal activity. Gas bubbling into the pool is composed of radon (from the radioactive decay of radium), nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and trace helium and hydrogen. The microbial composition of mat and biofilm samples from Paralana was determined using culture-independent 16S rRNA techniques. We have previously demonstrated that the hot spring contains a diverse bacterial community. Here we summarise these findings and report on the Archaea identified in Paralana. Archaeal inhabitants include members of the Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota kingdoms.