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To investigate the association between suicide death and serum cholesterol levels as measured at times close to suicide death.
We conducted a nested case-control study of 41 cases of suicide deaths and 205 matched controls with serum total cholesterol (TC) levels till 3 years before suicide death in a large cohort of Japanese workers.
Individuals in the lowest versus highest tertile/predefined category of TC in a Japanese working population had a three- to four-fold greater risk of suicide death. Each 10 mg/dl decrement of average TC was associated with an 18% increased chance of suicide death (95% confidence interval, 2–35%). Similar results were found for TC levels at each year.
These results suggest that a low serum TC level in recent past is associated with an increased risk of suicide death.
Group III-Sb compound semiconductors are promising materials for future CMOS circuits. Especially, In1-xGaxSb is considered as a complimentary p-type channel material to n-type In1-xGaxAs MOSFET due to the superior hole transport properties and similar chemical properties in III-Sb’s to those of InGaAs. The heteroepitaxial growth of In1-xGaxSb on Si substrate has significant advantage for volume fabrication of III-V ICs. However large lattice mismatch between InGaSb and Si results in many growth-related defects (micro twins, threading dislocations and antiphase domain boundaries); these defects also act as deep acceptor levels. Accordingly, unintentional doping in InGaSb films causes additional scattering, increase junction leakages and affects the interface properties. In this paper, we studied the correlations between of defects and hole carrier densities in GaSb and strained In1-xGaxSb quantum well layers by using various designs of metamorphic superlattice buffers.
Akathisia is a common adverse effect of antipsychotics and, less commonly, antidepressants. Akathisia can cause great discomfort and is often described by the patient as a most distressing sensation; however, the condition is often underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed. In oncological settings, neuroleptics and antidepressants that induce akathisia are also administered. However, reports of akathisia in oncology settings are few and a case of akathisia in a bedridden patient has not been reported as far as we know.
A 72-year-old man with esophageal cancer who could not sit down or stand up was administered 5 mg/day haloperidol to relieve agitation as a symptom of major depressive disorder. Three days after the administration of haloperidol, the agitation had become worse. Careful observation revealed that the patient sometimes showed slight rubbing movement of the lower extremities and slight twisting movements of the body, which were not observed before the administration of haloperidol. The patient moved his body and lower extremities to relieve restlessness, which had developed after the administration of haloperidol. Although symptoms were atypical, akathisia was suspected and discontinuation of haloperidol resolved the symptoms.
Results and significance of results:
In patients with poor performance status, clues leading to the correct diagnosis of akathisia might be absent, which would not be the case in patients who were able to walk, stand up, or sit down. Careful observations of patients before and after the administration of drugs that may cause akathisia may be required to ensure correct diagnosis.
It has been reported that akathisia is a neurological side effect induced by antiemetic drugs and/or antipsychotics. Akathisia can occur in any area of the body, but respiratory akathisia is an unusual type of akathisia. Cases of respiratory akathisia in cancer patients taking antiemetic drugs have not previously been reported.
We report on a case of a cancer patient taking prochlorperazine as an antiemetic drug who experienced dyspnea accompanied by severe restlessness associated with respiration. By administration of biperiden, his restlessness in respiration and dyspnea promptly disappeared.
This finding led us to conclude that this cancer patient was experiencing respiratory akathisia.
Significance of results:
Respiratory akathisia is uncommon. It is important for cancer patients that dyspnea induced by disease progression be ruled out as a cause of the respiratory restlessness. It is necessary to consider the possibility of akathisia in patients that complain of vague anxiety, chest discomfort, or dyspnea following antipsychotic medication.
There is substantial evidence that tricyclic antidepressants are effective in the management of chronic pain, including cancer pain. In oncological settings, these agents are used as adjuvant analgesic drugs. However, cases of akathisia due to tricyclic antidepressants used as adjuvant analgesic therapy have not previously been reported.
Two cancer patients experiencing chronic pain who were refractory to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and opioids were prescribed amoxapine as an adjuvant analgesic therapy for neuropathic pain. These patients developed inner restlessness and restless physical movements after amoxapine was prescribed. Although symptoms were atypical, akathisia was suspected and discontinuation of amoxapine resolved the symptoms.
Results and significance of results:
Akathisia should be considered in patients receiving adjuvant analgesic therapy with tricyclic antidepressants. Early detection and appropriate treatment will relieve this distressing symptom. Restless movements involving parts of the body other than the legs may be the clue to the diagnosis.
To evaluate the antibody response to influenza vaccines in nursing home residents and healthcare workers (HCWs) and its relation to residents' functional and chronic disease status during four successive seasons.
Nine nursing homes during the 1998-1999 season and two during the 1999-2000, 2000-2001, and 2001-2002 seasons.
Two hundred fifty-nine residents and 79 HCWs during the 1998-1999 season; 180 and 71, respectively, during the 1999-2000 season; 162 and 71, respectively, during the 2000-2001 season; and 153 and 79, respectively, during the 2001-2002 season.
Multivariate analysis indicated that the mean fold increase in the geometric mean titers (GMTs) of hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibodies and the response rate (the proportion of vaccinées resulting in a significant, at least fourfold increase in antibody titer) were good and no significant differences occurred for almost all strains in both residents and HCWs. The GMTs of HI antibodies and the protection rate (the proportion of participants with HI antibody titers & 40) were increased in both residents and HCWs, but were significantly lower for almost all strains in residents than in HCWs. Furthermore, multivariate analysis indicated that subdivision of residents into three groups by level of daily activities and into four groups according to underlying diseases revealed only minor differences in immune responses.
Antibody responses to the influenza vaccine were lower in residents than in HCWs. However, residents showed similar antibody responses regardless of their level of daily activity or underlying diseases.
Highly oriented ZnO nanorods have been grown on p--Si(111) wafers using a low-pressure thermal CVD method. X-ray diffraction shows that the nanorods are grown with the c-axis normal to the substrate. An electroluminescent device with ITO/ZnS:Mn/nanorod-ZnO/p--Si structure where the ZnS:Mn and ITO layers are deposited by the electron beam deposition method on the ZnO nanorods layer operates stably in DC mode with high luminance.
The ultrastructure of Betz cells in the 5th layer of the primary motor cortex of 17 neurologically and psychiatrically normal control individuals was studied. Normal-appearing Betz cells showed a wide range of features including novel electron-dense inclusion bodies (Bunina-like bodies) resembling Bunina bodies characteristic of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), accumulations of neurofilaments (10 nm in diameter), bundles of filaments (20–25 nm in diameter) thicker than neurofilaments, lamellar structures, lamellar bodies and structures similar to Hirano bodies. Among these ‘abnormal’ features, the presence of Bunina-like bodies may be an age-related nonspecific degenerative change, since they appeared more frequently in elderly individuals. The presence of these abnormal features—particularly the Bunina-like bodies—in the Betz cells of normal human brains must be considered in the assessment of the pathognomonic significance of such structures in ALS and other neurological diseases that affect the motor cortex.
The 27Al MAS-NMR spectra of alumina aerogels were determined. The spectra showed different profiles according to the supercritical methods used during drying. The alumina aerogel supercritically dried in a CO2 extractor (80 °C, 15.7 MPa) displayed a pentahedral-coordinated aluminum structure. On the other hand, the alumina aerogel supercritically dried in an autoclave (270 °C, 26.5 MPa) revealed no pentahedral-coordinated aluminum structure. The absence of pentahedral-coordinated aluminum was one factor for the lower temperature of transformation from the γ to the θ phase.
Mechanical and X-ray elastic constants of four types of ZrO2 were measured for (133) planes with Cr-Kα radiation. The main differences among the specimens were the chemical components, the sintering method and the heat-treatment. It was found that the elastic constants were affected by the heat-treatment, but little by the other factors. The influence of the method of the peak determination on the result was also examined. The residual stresses at the knife edge were determined.
Thermal oxidation resistance, in a temperature range of 600 to 1100° C, of AIN-Al2O3 composite, AIN and θ-A12 O3 films has been studied. The films were prepared by microwave plasma CVD using an AlBr3 -H2 -N2 -Ar gas system at a substrate temperature of 430° C. AIN-Al2O3 composite film was found to have good surface stability below an oxidaton temperature of 1100°C and to have the best properties for insulation film.
Zn-Ni-alloy electroplated steels are used for the parts of automob iles because of their high corrosion resistance. in the x-ray stress measurement of this material, some unique experimental results were observed: (i) The sin2Φ diagrams were severely curved, and (ii) the influence of the wave length of x-ray radiations upon the shape of the d-sin2Φ diagram was very slight. As no strong texture or the gradients of composition were observed in this material, the above experimental results suggested the existence of steep stress gradients in the direction of depth, and a theoretical problem on the difference in the effective penetration depth of x-rays and the weighted mean of the lattice strain between thin films and ordinary thick materials.
Zn-Ni-alloy electroplated steels are one of the surface-treated materials with a high corrosion resistance and are mostly used for automobiles. It is said that the corrosion resistance is more than four times as great as that of Zn-plated steels. Concerning x-ray stress measurement, Kyono et al reported the result of measurement on y (552) planes and showed that the sin2φ diagram was severely curved.
X-ray stress analysis in surface-treated materials will become more important. Some problems, however, remain to be studied when we apply the x-ray method to thin layers. For example, the effective x-ray penetration depth may be different from that in ordinary materials. And complex gradients of stresses and compositions may exist.
When X-ray residual stresses are determined taking into account the stress gradients within the penetration depth of X-rays, three assumptions have usually been made; 1) the stress gradient is linear in respect to the depth from the specimen surface, 2) the penetration depth of X-rays is a function of Sin2ψ and 3) the strain measured by X-rays corresponds to the average strain weighted on the intensity of the diffracted X-rays. However, the assumption of the penetration depth of X-rays is the reason we sometimes observed noticeable errors which depend on the combination of stress components in the stress tensor.
Nonlinear sin2ψ curves are often obtained in X-ray stress measurement. One of the reasons, for non-textured materials, is a steep stress gradient snowing in a surface layer of a sample. Regarding such experimental results, several new principles have been developed for X-ray stress analysis. At the present stage, we can evaluate the stress gradient in a triaxial stress state. As the next stage of the investigation, it is necessary to consider the validity of the assumptions taken in the principle, especially, the assumption about linear distribution of stress along the depth direction.
Since the method of X-ray multiaxial stress analysis (ψ-splitting problem) was proposed by Dolle and Hauk, their method is often utilized for residual stress evaluation on a processed surface. However, as pointed out by thanselves, a theoretical problem still remains on the assumption of the stress state. Namely, the effect of ψ-splitting is impossible unless stress gradients with respect to the direction of the depth in σ13 or σ23 are present, because these components and σ33 have to vanish at the outer surface. Actually, we often find the 2θ vs. sin2ψ relations which do not agree with their theory. In this paper, we proposed a new method for X-ray multiaxial stress analysis in which the effect of stress gradient was considered. The basic equation of this method was solved by means of the integral method proposed by Lode and Peiter. The validity of the present method was proved through a numerical simulation and an experiment.
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