Examination of sampled material and review of the relevant literature revealed the presence of 299 benthic and 46 pelagic amphipod species from the Aegean Sea. Two of the species identified, Caprella hirsuta Mayer, 1890 and Apohyale crassipes (Heller, 1866), are recorded for the first time in the Aegean Sea and the Levantine Basin respectively. A checklist of the Mediterranean amphipods is given, as well as their distribution in the Mediterranean territorial areas and the Black Sea. The faunal comparison of the Mediterranean areas showed that the number of species decreases from west to east. In terms of zoogeographical categories the Atlanto-Mediterranean species dominate in all Mediterranean areas followed by the endemic species concerning the benthic amphipods while in pelagic amphipods cosmopolitan species dominate and are then followed by Atlanto-Mediterranean. Three species, Bemlos leptocheirus (Walker, 1909) and Linguimarea caesaris Krapp-Schickel, 2003, Photis lamellifera Schellenberg, 1928, are lessepsian migrants and are reported in the Levantine and Central Mediterranean Seas.