Mammalian oocyte maturation is achieved when oocytes reach metaphase II (MII) stage, and accumulate mRNA and proteins in the cytoplasm following fertilization. It has been shown that oocytes investigated before and after in vitro maturation (IVM) differ significantly in transcriptomic and proteomic profiles. Additionally, folliculogenesis and oogenesis is accompanied by morphogenetic changes, which significantly influence further zygote formation and embryo growth. This study aimed to determine new transcriptomic markers of porcine oocyte morphogenesis that are associated with cell maturation competence. An Affymetrix microarray assay was performed on an RNA template isolated from porcine oocytes before (n = 150) and after (n = 150) IVM. The brilliant cresyl blue (BCB) staining test was used for identification of cells with the highest developmental capacity. DAVID (Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery) software was used for the extraction of the genes belonging to a cell morphogenesis Gene Ontology group. The control group consisted of freshly isolated oocytes. In total, 12,000 different transcripts were analysed, from which 379 genes were downregulated and 40 were upregulated in oocytes following IVM. We found five genes, SOX9, MAP1B, DAB2, FN1, and CXCL12, that were significantly upregulated in oocytes after IVM (in vitro group) compared with oocytes analysed before IVM (in vivo group). In conclusion, we found new transcriptomic markers of oocyte morphogenesis, which may be also recognized as significant mediators of cellular maturation capacity in pigs. Genes SOX9, MAP1B, DAB2, FN1, and CXCL12 may be involved in the regulation of the MII stage oocyte formation and several other processes that are crucial for porcine reproductive competence.