To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
There is compelling evidence for the early involvement of the hippocampal formation in the natural history of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The evidence comes from recent neuropathology, neuropsychology, and neuroimaging studies. AD-type histopathologic changes limited to the hippocampus have been described and may be seen in normal aging subjects. The sites of maximal neuronal loss in the hippocampal formation are in the CA1, subiculum, and entorhinal cortex. Minimally cognitively impaired (MCI) individuals (defined by ratings of functional capacity and psychiatric symptomatology) exhibit a neuropsychological profile that is distinct from that of the unimpaired elderly. Pathologic evidence suggests that most of these cases already have AD brain changes accentuated in the hippocampal region, and our own longitudinal studies reveal that 70% of this group develop dementia within a 4-year period. We have developed a negative-angle axial view designed to cut parallel to the anterior-posterior plane of the hippocampus. Using this modified axial plane of section in conjunction with computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we estimated the prevalence of hippocampal atrophy in normal aging and across severity levels of cognitively impaired elderly patients. Longitudinal study shows that hippocompal atrophy is a sensitive and specific predictor of future AD for patients with MCI. MRI volume study of AD patients, controls, and MCI patients shows specific hippocampal volume loss in MCI. We conclude that the atrophic changes associated with early AD can be visualized using qualitative techniques and are readily quantifiable with volumetry. This article is not intended to be comprehensive, but to provide an overview of some of the structural neuroimaging data from our laboratory.
To address the issue of mild, moderate, and severe Alzheimer's disease (AD), it is necessary to initially establish some agreement on terminology. In recent decades, these terms have frequently been defined using screening instrument scores with measures such as the Mini-Menal State Examination (MMSE). There are many problems with this approach, perhaps the most salient of which is that it has contributed to the total and tragic neglect of patients with severe AD. An alternative approach to the classification of AD severity is staging. This approach has advanced to the point where moderately severe and severe AD can be described in detail. Procedures for describing this previously neglected latter portion of AD have recently been extensively validated. Staging is also uniquely useful at the other end of the severity spectrum, in differentiating early aging brain/behavior changes, incipient AD, and mild AD. Temporally, with staging procedures, it is possible to track the course of AD approximately three times more accurately than with the MMSE. The net result of the advances in AD delineation is that issues such as prophylaxis, modification of course, treatment of behavioral distrubances, loss of ambulation, progressive rigidity, and the development of contractures in AD patients can now be addressed in a scientifically meaningful way that will hopefully bestow much benefit in AD patients and those who care for them.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.