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To explore differences in proportion of food budget and total food expenditure by dwelling type.
A cross-sectional study using data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics 2015–2016 Household Expenditure Survey. Food expenditure was examined on multiple categories: fresh fruits, fresh vegetables, pre-prepared meals, meals in restaurants, hotels and clubs, and fast food and takeaway meals, using two-part models and zero-one inflated beta regression models. Dwelling types were categorised as separate house, semi-detached house, low-rise apartment and high-rise apartment.
Seven thousand three hundred and fifty-eight households from greater capital city areas.
Households living in high-rise apartments were estimated to allocate a greater proportion of their food budget to meals in restaurants, hotels and clubs, and to spend more (actual dollars) on that category, compared with other dwelling types. No substantial differences were estimated in the proportion of food budget allocated to the other food categories across dwelling types.
The dwelling type households live in may play a role in their food budget. Households living in a high-rise apartment may potentially spend more on meals in restaurants, hotels and clubs than those living in other dwelling types. Given the growth in urban population and the changes in living arrangements, findings point to the critical need for a better understanding of the influence of dwelling types on food expenditure and call for research investigating the relationship between the two.
For all IPS drinks, the mean package size was larger than the mean serving size (mean (sd)=412 (157) ml and 359 (159) ml, respectively). The mean (sd) package size of IPS drinks was significantly different for all countries (range: Australia=370 (149) ml to New Zealand=484 (191) ml; P<0·01). The mean (sd) package size of Dutch BPS drinks (1313 (323) ml) was significantly smaller compared with the other countries (New Zealand=1481 (595) ml, Australia=1542 (595) ml, Canada=1550 (434) ml; P<0·01). The mean (sd) serving size of BPS drinks was significantly different across all countries (range: Netherlands=216 (30) ml to Canada=248 (31) ml; P<0·00). New Zealand had the largest package and serving sizes of the countries assessed. In all countries, a large number of different serving sizes were used to provide information on the amount appropriate to consume in one sitting.
At this point there is substantial inconsistency in package sizes and manufacturer-recommended serving sizes of sweet beverages within and between four high-income countries, especially for IPS drinks. As consumers do factor serving size into their judgements of healthiness of a product, serving size regulations, preferably set by governments and global health organisations, would provide consistency and assist individuals in making healthier food choices.
The aim of the present study was to gain insight into (i) processed snack-food availability, (ii) processed snack-food salience and (iii) the size of dinnerware among households with overweight gatekeepers. Moreover, associations between gatekeepers’ characteristics and in-home observations were determined.
A cross-sectional observation of home food environments was conducted as part of a baseline measurement of a larger study.
Home food environments of overweight and obese gatekeepers in the Netherlands.
Household gatekeepers (n 278). Mean household size of the gatekeepers was 3·0 (sd 1·3) persons. Mean age of the gatekeepers was 45·7 (sd 9·2) years, 34·9 % were overweight and 65·1 % were obese. Of the gatekeepers, 20·9 % had a low level of education and 42·7 % had a high level of education.
In 70 % of the households, eight or more packages of processed snack foods were present. In 54 % of the households, processed snack foods were stored close to non-processed food items and in 78 % of households close to non-food items. In 33 % of the households, processed snack foods were visible in the kitchen and in 15 % of the households processed snack foods were visible in the living room. Of the dinnerware items, 14 % (plates), 57 % (glasses), 78 % (dessert bowls), 67 % (soup bowls) and 58 % (mugs) were larger than the reference norms of the Netherlands Nutrition Centre Foundation. Older gatekeepers used significantly smaller dinnerware than younger gatekeepers.
Environmental factors endorsing overconsumption are commonly present in the home environments of overweight people and could lead to unplanned eating or passive overconsumption.
Nutritional interventions to decrease energy intake, aimed at portion sizes and front-of-package labelling, are effective only if people do not compensate for their reduced energy intake. Since several observational studies indicate that these interventions could prompt compensation behaviour, it is important to assess underlying beliefs. Therefore, the purpose of the two studies reported here was to develop a Diet-related Compensatory Health Beliefs Scale (Diet-CHBS).
Cross-sectional surveys were conducted for the scale development. Study 1 provided data on the factor analysis and convergent validity, while Study 2 assessed the Diet-CHBS’ test–retest reliability.
VU University Amsterdam (Study 1) and twenty-five worksite cafeterias in the Netherlands (Study 2).
Study 1 was conducted among 179 students and their parents; Study 2 was conducted among 119 worksite cafeteria visitors.
The results of Study 1 showed that the scale consisted of the hypothesized factors of compensation beliefs with regard to portion sizes (α = 0·73), front-of-package health logos (α = 0·77) and exercise (α = 0·75). The scale's overall Cronbach's α was 0·82. The Diet-CHBS had a Pearson correlation of 0·32 with a general health compensatory beliefs scale, signifying satisfactory convergent validity. Study 2 showed that the intra-class correlation coefficient between T1 and T2 was 0·69, indicating adequate test–retest reliability.
The Diet-CHBS is a valid and reliable instrument for assessing diet-related compensatory health beliefs in response to nutritional interventions. It is important to take such beliefs into account in further intervention studies aimed at preventing overweight and obesity.
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