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Cognitive deficits may be characteristic for only a subgroup of first-episode psychosis (FEP) and the link with clinical and functional outcomes is less profound than previously thought. This study aimed to identify cognitive subgroups in a large sample of FEP using a clustering approach with healthy controls as a reference group, subsequently linking cognitive subgroups to clinical and functional outcomes.
204 FEP patients were included. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed using baseline brief assessment of cognition in schizophrenia (BACS). Cognitive subgroups were compared to 40 controls and linked to longitudinal clinical and functional outcomes (PANSS, GAF, self-reported WHODAS 2.0) up to 12-month follow-up.
Three distinct cognitive clusters emerged: relative to controls, we found one cluster with preserved cognition (n = 76), one moderately impaired cluster (n = 74) and one severely impaired cluster (n = 54). Patients with severely impaired cognition had more severe clinical symptoms at baseline, 6- and 12-month follow-up as compared to patients with preserved cognition. General functioning (GAF) in the severely impaired cluster was significantly lower than in those with preserved cognition at baseline and showed trend-level effects at 6- and 12-month follow-up. No significant differences in self-reported functional outcome (WHODAS 2.0) were present.
Current results demonstrate the existence of three distinct cognitive subgroups, corresponding with clinical outcome at baseline, 6- and 12-month follow-up. Importantly, the cognitively preserved subgroup was larger than the severely impaired group. Early identification of discrete cognitive profiles can offer valuable information about the clinical outcome but may not be relevant in predicting self-reported functional outcomes.
Detailed morphological and anatomical studies informed by molecular inferences with mtSSU as a marker revealed two new species of Micarea in Western Europe, both belonging to the core group of the genus, namely the M. prasina group: M. herbarum from the Netherlands and Poland and M. meridionalis from Portugal and Italy. Micarea herbarum looks like a small or depauperate M. denigrata but clearly differs by the lack of gyrophoric acid, while M. meridionalis is distinguished by its granular thallus and the production of micareic acid.
Detailed anatomical and chemical studies conducted on recent collections made in almost all suitable habitats on Réunion, a small remote tropical island in the Indian Ocean, yielded a surprising diversity in the widespread lichen genus Micarea (Pilocarpaceae, Lecanorales). Twenty-one species are recognized, including 13 described here as new to science. They are: Micarea alectorialica, M. bebourensis, M. borbonica, M. boryana, M. cilaoensis, M. hyalinoxanthonica, M. isidiosa, M. melanoprasina, M. pseudocoppinsii, M. pseudolignaria, M. sublithinella, M. takamakae and M. tenuispora. Notes on local ecology and important biogeographical features are also given and a key to the species is provided. Isidiiform areolae are reported for the first time in the genus (M. isidiosa and M. tenuispora), as well as the production of protolichesterinic and confluentic acids (M. sublithinella and M. takamakae, respectively). Two groups within the genus are species-rich on the island: the M. peliocarpa group with possibly 5 species, including 3 new to science, and the M. prasina group with 4 species, including 2 new to science. Micarea levicula is reported here for the first time since its description, and the status of the material that can be referred to M. micrococca s. lat. needs further study.
There has been a recent resurgence in interest in developing ohmic switches to complement transistors in order to address challenges associated with electrical current leakage. A critical limitation in ohmic switches remains the reliability of their electrical contacts. These contacts are prone to hydrocarbon induced contamination which progressively inhibits signal transmission, eventually leading to device failure. We report on progress made towards controlling the contamination phenomenon. We discuss how contact materials and operating environment affect device performance, showing that RuO2 coated microswitch contacts operating in the presence of O2 experience very limited contaminant accumulation even in hydrocarbon-rich environments. We then demonstrate that devices which have experienced contamination can recover their original performance by being operated in clean N2:O2 environment. Finally, we suggest that this resistance recovery is associated with the chemical transformation of the contaminant as opposed to its removal and that the transformed contaminant may shield the Pt coating from oxidation.
Lecania chlorotiza and L. falcata, described here as new from Spain/Navarra, the Canary Islands and the Azores, do not belong to Lecania s. str. They belong to a strongly supported clade comprising Bacidia, Bacidina, Scutula and Toninia when examined with maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inferences using mtSSU, nuLSU and nuITS sequences. This clade represents the Bacidiaceae and is included in the Ramalinaceae s. lat. Most genera included in that family need further work before a new genus can possibly be described for Lecania chlorotiza and L. falcata.
The implosion of the Soviet empire undermined most theories concerning International Relations. Only a few political scientists have conceded afterwards the weakness of their theories, which were mostly ahistorical, based on the deformation of politics with history omitted. The question asked in this article is what kind of International Relations as a discipline may be more reliable and helpful in the future.
Melanotopelia africana is described as new to science from Rwanda (continental Africa) and La Réunion (Mascarenes archipelago). Topeliopsis muscigena is here reported for the first time from La Réunion.
A revision of the Lecanora saligna-group is provided, based on specimens mainly from western and central Europe. Four new Lecanora species related to L. saligna are described: L. calabrica, L. coppinsii, L. pseudosarcopidoides and L. subsaligna, as well as a new variety, L. albellula var. macroconidiata. The species treated have in common relatively short and ± curved or bacilliform conidia and/or isousnic acid as a secondary metabolite. Species without isousnic acid, containing exclusively filiform conidia are excluded. Notes on various types of conidia (macroconidia, microconidia, mesoconidia and leptoconidia), morphology, ecology, chemistry and distribution are given and a key to the treated species is provided. Detailed descriptions are presented for eight related species in order to highlight the distinguishing characters.
Detailed studies on the lichen genus Porina in Macaronesia have led to a reappraisal of the genuine identity of Porina atlantica (Erichsen) P. M. Jørg., a characteristic species that has previously been confused with P. guaranitica, P. heterospora, P. nucula, P. mastoidea or P. rhodostoma in the literature, and is here reported from Madeira, the Canary Islands, Ireland, France and Portugal. Two new species are described: P. effilata Brand & Sérus. sp. nov. (known from Madeira, the Canary Islands, Great Britain, Ireland and Portugal) and P. ocoteae Brand & Sérus. sp. nov. (restricted to La Palma, Canary Islands, and São Jorge in the Azores). Porina leptospora Nyl. is recognized at the species level, and P. isidiata Kalb & Hafellner is reduced into synonymy with P. atlantica. A key to all known species of Porina in Macaronesia is provided.
Lecania fructigena has been found in western Europe. This species, previously known only from western North America and north-western Mexico, is described and compared with related species. It is easily overlooked for L. aipospila. Lecania sampaiana is a synonym of L. aipospila.
Felihanera viridisorediata Aptroot, Brand & Spier, a corticolous sorediate species commonly found sterile, is described from fertile material on Juglans glabra in the Netherlands. It was also found with apothecia on, for example, twigs of Vaccinium myrtillus, Lonicera, and other trees. It seems to be common and rapidly spreading in sheltered habitats in Belgium, Germany and the Netherlands, also occasionally on wood, roofs, granite and brick. It is close to other Felihanera species, especially F. seroexpectata and F. viridis, but it differs in the paler soredia, smaller, 1-septate and constricted ascospores and the presence of roccellic acid.
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