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Manual surveillance of surgical site infections (SSIs) after total hip or knee arthroplasty is time-consuming and prone to error. Semiautomated surveillance based on routine care data extracted from electronic health records can retrospectively identify deep SSIs and substantially reduce workload while maintaining 100% sensitivity.
Valid comparison between hospitals for benchmarking or pay-for-performance incentives requires accurate correction for underlying disease severity (case-mix). However, existing models are either very simplistic or require extensive manual data collection.
To develop a disease severity prediction model based solely on data routinely available in electronic health records for risk-adjustment in mechanically ventilated patients.
Retrospective cohort study.
Mechanically ventilated patients from a single tertiary medical center (2006–2012).
Predictors were extracted from electronic data repositories (demographic characteristics, laboratory tests, medications, microbiology results, procedure codes, and comorbidities) and assessed for feasibility and generalizability of data collection. Models for in-hospital mortality of increasing complexity were built using logistic regression. Estimated disease severity from these models was linked to rates of ventilator-associated events.
A total of 20,028 patients were initiated on mechanical ventilation, of whom 3,027 deceased in hospital. For models of incremental complexity, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve ranged from 0.83 to 0.88. A simple model including demographic characteristics, type of intensive care unit, time to intubation, blood culture sampling, 8 common laboratory tests, and surgical status achieved an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.87 (95% CI, 0.86–0.88) with adequate calibration. The estimated disease severity was associated with occurrence of ventilator-associated events.
Accurate estimation of disease severity in ventilated patients using electronic, routine care data was feasible using simple models. These estimates may be useful for risk-adjustment in ventilated patients. Additional research is necessary to validate and refine these models.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2015;36(7):807–815
Manual surveillance of healthcare-associated infections is cumbersome and vulnerable to subjective interpretation. Automated systems are under development to improve efficiency and reliability of surveillance, for example by selecting high-risk patients requiring manual chart review. In this study, we aimed to validate a previously developed multivariable prediction modeling approach for detecting drain-related meningitis (DRM) in neurosurgical patients and to assess its merits compared to conventional methods of automated surveillance.
Prospective cohort study in 3 hospitals assessing the accuracy and efficiency of 2 automated surveillance methods for detecting DRM, the multivariable prediction model and a classification algorithm, using manual chart review as the reference standard. All 3 methods of surveillance were performed independently. Patients receiving cerebrospinal fluid drains were included (2012–2013), except children, and patients deceased within 24 hours or with pre-existing meningitis. Data required by automated surveillance methods were extracted from routine care clinical data warehouses.
In total, DRM occurred in 37 of 366 external cerebrospinal fluid drainage episodes (12.3/1000 drain days at risk). The multivariable prediction model had good discriminatory power (area under the ROC curve 0.91–1.00 by hospital), had adequate overall calibration, and could identify high-risk patients requiring manual confirmation with 97.3% sensitivity and 52.2% positive predictive value, decreasing the workload for manual surveillance by 81%. The multivariable approach was more efficient than classification algorithms in 2 of 3 hospitals.
Automated surveillance of DRM using a multivariable prediction model in multiple hospitals considerably reduced the burden for manual chart review at near-perfect sensitivity.
Surveillance of healthcare-associated infections is labor intensive and complex. Discharge coding is an accessible source of information that may support detection of cases. For drain-related meningitis, however, discharge coding data had low sensitivity (32%) and positive predictive value (35%) and could neither replace nor improve existing complex surveillance systems.
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