The aim of the present study was to investigate in human subjects whether or not the ingestion of two liquid meals that differed only in their fatty acid composition (due to the addition of olive oil (group O) or sunflowerseed oil (group S) as the source of dietary fat) would lead to differences in the pancreatic enzyme activities secreted into the duodenum. The experiments were performed in eighteen cholecystectomized subjects who, during the 30d period immediately before surgery, modified their habitual diets in such a way that their fat composition would reflect, as far as possible, that of the experimental meals. Lipase (EC 184.108.40.206), colipase, amylase (EC 220.127.116.11), chymotrypsin (EC 18.104.22.168) and trypsin (EC 22.214.171.124) activities were measured in duodenal contents aspirated before and after the ingestion of the test meals. The plasma levels of secretin and cholecystokinin (CCK) were also examined. Duodenal enzyme activities were similar in resting conditions. No significant differences were revealed in postprandial enzyme activities, except for lipase activity, which was higher in group O, probably in relation to the greater plasma CCK concentrations observed in this group. In the absence of enzyme output data, we should not exclude the possibility that the type of dietary fat will affect human pancreatic enzyme secretion to a greater extent than is evident from the present study, for instance through a flow-mediated effect, as we previously observed in dogs.