The first part of this article seeks to discuss the development of Islamic architectural calligraphy in Sultanate Bengal in the context of its cultural history. Most early Islamic monuments of the region had some kind of calligraphic embellishment since in Islamic culture inscriptions are considered a powerful medium for conveying visual, cultural and spiritual messages. These inscriptions were rendered in various styles: Ku¯fi¯, thulth, naskh, riqa¯‘, rayha¯ni¯, muhaqqaq, tughra¯‘ and Biha¯ri¯. The second part focuses on some hitherto unpublished inscriptions discovered by the author in Gaur and Pandua, two early capitals of the Sultans of Bengal. Special attention is paid to deciphering and editing these new epigraphic texts, and to the analysis of information derived from them in their historical context, such as the names of the contemporary rulers, local administrative officers, religious figures, military commanders and their titles. These findings help us understand the contemporary political, administrative, social, religious and cultural implications for the region.