Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are lifelong neurodevelopmental disabilities that affect 1 in 88 children in the USA. Despite the high heritability, the genetic basis for a majority of the ASDs remains elusive. The considerable clinical and genetic heterogeneity pose a significant challenge technically. State-of-the-art high-throughput sequencing (HTS), which makes the analyses of any specific single/multiple genes or whole exomes feasible, has shown a promising perspective in disease gene discovery. To date, numerous genetic studies using HTS have been reported and many rare inherited or de novo mutations have been identified. This review will focus on the progress and prospective of genome studies of ASDs using HTS.