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Flow around a high-speed rotating circular cylinder for
is investigated numerically. The Reynolds number is defined as
being the free-stream flow velocity, the diameter of the cylinder and the kinematic viscosity of the fluid, respectively. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of a high rotation rate on the wake flow for a range of Reynolds numbers. Simulations are performed for Reynolds numbers of 100, 150, 200, 250 and 500 and a wide range of rotation rates from 1.6 to 6 with an increment of 0.2. Rotation rate is the ratio of the rotational speed of the cylinder surface to the incoming fluid velocity. A systematic study is performed to investigate the effect of rotation rate on the flow transition to different flow regimes. It is found that there is a transition from a two-dimensional vortex shedding mode to no vortex shedding mode when the rotation rate is increased beyond a critical value for Reynolds numbers between 100 and 200. Further increase in rotation rate results in a transition to three-dimensional flow which is characterized by the presence of finger-shaped (FV) vortices that elongate in the wake of the cylinder and very weak ring-shaped vortices (RV) that wrap the surface of the cylinder. The no vortex shedding mode is not observed at Reynolds numbers greater than or equal to 250 since the flow remains three-dimensional. As the rotation rate is increased further, the occurrence frequency and size of the ring-shaped vortices increases and the flow is dominated by RVs. The RVs become bigger in size and the flow becomes chaotic with increasing rotation rate. A detailed analysis of the flow structures shows that the vortices always exist in pairs and the strength of separated shear layers increases with the increase of rotation rate. A map of flow regimes on a plane of Reynolds number and rotation rate is presented.
The BioCD is a spinning biochip that uses quadrature laser interferometry to detect captured protein on the disc surface. We describe the detection limits of protein binding on this optical biosensor. The fundamental metrology limit is 1 picometer for a single 100-micron diameter spot. Under assay conditions for prostate specific antigen, we can detect 25 pg/ml at 10 assays per disc.
Molecular interferometric imaging (MI2) is a label-free optical biosensor that combines common-path interferometry with shot-noise limited characteristics of a CCD array detector to detect protein binding to surfaces. In the metrology limit, it has achieved roughness-limited surface height resolution of 15 pm per 0.4 micron pixel, corresponding to a scaling mass sensitivity of 7 fg/mm, and a molecular resolution of about 15 IgG molecules per pixel. We have applied MI2 to detect cytokine interleukin-5 at a concentration detection limit of 50 pg/mL with a sandwich immunoassay. Real-time binding assays with MI2 enable the study of reaction kinetics, with a scaling mass sensitivity of 2 pg/mm under 7x magnification. Real-time MI2 measurements of anti-rabbit IgG against rabbit IgG were compared with results from surface plasmon resonance, with identical association rate constants at 5x103 M-1sec-1.
Radiocarbon (14C) has become a unique and powerful tracer in source apportionment of atmospheric carbonaceous particles. In this study, the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation summit (APEC) held in Beijing in 2014 was used as a demonstration to research the source apportionment of atmosphere PM2.5. We used a 200 kV single stage accelerator mass spectrometer recently completed at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). The PM2.5 samples related to above case were collected, and the characteristics of radiocarbon in organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) in samples were analyzed using the AMS. The results show that the Before-APEC pollution emission mode is different from the During-APEC and After-APEC pollution emission modes. For Before-APEC, During-APEC and After-APEC, the average values of fossil carbon fraction of OC are 0.463, 0.431 and 0.615, respectively, and those of EC are 0.644, 0.561 and 0.687. The fossil source contributions of traffic activities using fossil fuels to OC and EC are 15.8 % and 21.9 %, respectively. The fossil source contributions of industrial activities to OC and EC are 38.0 % and 8.2 %, respectively. It is about 7–10 days that is needed to take to regenerate the PM2.5 pollution caused by human activities.
The two-phase flow pattern of a flow mixing nozzle plays an important role in jet breakup and atomization. However, the flow pattern of this nozzle and its transformation characteristics are still unclear. A diesel-air injection simulation model of a flow mixing nozzle is established. Then the two-phase flow pattern and transformation characteristics of the flow mixing nozzle is studied using a numerical simulation method. The effect of the air-diesel velocity ratio, ratio of the distance between the tube orifice and nozzle hole and the tube diameter (H/D), and the diesel inlet velocity was studied in terms of the jet breakup diameter (jet diameter at the breakup position) and jet breakup length (length of the diesel jet from the breakup position to the nozzle outlet). The results show that the jet breakup diameter decreases with the decrease in H/D or the increase in the air-diesel velocity ratio and diesel inlet velocity. The jet breakup length increases first and then decreases with the increase in H/D and air-diesel velocity ratio; the trend of the diesel inlet velocity is complicated. In addition, a change in the working conditions also causes some morphological changes that cannot be quantitatively analyzed in the diesel-air flow pattern. The transition characteristics of the flow pattern are analyzed, and it is found that the main reason for the change in the flow pattern is the change in the inertial force of the air, surface tension force, and viscous force of diesel (non-dimensional Reynolds number and Weber number describe the transition characteristics in this paper). The surface tension force of diesel decreases and the viscous force of diesel and inertial force of air increase when the air-diesel velocity ratio increases or H/D decreases. However, the effects of the diesel surface tension force and viscous force effect are much smaller than that of the air inertial force, which changes the diesel-air flow pattern from a drop pattern to a vibration jet pattern, broken jet pattern, and then a chaotic jet pattern.
Existing data on folate status and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) prognosis are scarce. We prospectively examined whether serum folate concentrations at diagnosis were associated with liver cancer-specific survival (LCSS) and overall survival (OS) among 982 patients with newly diagnosed, previously untreated HCC, who were enrolled in the Guangdong Liver Cancer Cohort (GLCC) study between September 2013 and February 2017. Serum folate concentrations were measured using chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. Cox proportional hazards models were performed to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI by sex-specific quartile of serum folate. Compared with patients in the third quartile of serum folate, patients in the lowest quartile had significantly inferior LCSS (HR = 1·48; 95 % CI 1·05, 2·09) and OS (HR = 1·43; 95 % CI 1·03, 1·99) after adjustment for non-clinical and clinical prognostic factors. The associations were not significantly modified by sex, age at diagnosis, alcohol drinking status and Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage. However, there were statistically significant interactions on both multiplicative and additive scale between serum folate and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels or smoking status and the associations of lower serum folate with worse LCSS and OS were only evident among patients with CRP > 3·0 mg/l or current smokers. An inverse association with LCSS were also observed among patients with liver damage score ≥3. These results suggest that lower serum folate concentrations at diagnosis are independently associated with worse HCC survival, most prominently among patients with systemic inflammation and current smokers. A future trial of folate supplementation seems to be promising in HCC patients with lower folate status.
Challenges remain in the judgement of pathological murmurs in newborns at maternity hospitals, and there are still many simple major CHD patients in developing countries who are not diagnosed in a timely fashion. This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of cardiac auscultation on neonatal CHD by general paediatricians.
We conducted a prospective study at three hospitals. All asymptomatic newborns underwent auscultation, pulse oximetry monitoring, and echocardiography. Major CHD was classified and confirmed through follow-up. We evaluated the accuracy of various degrees of murmurs for detecting major CHD to determine the most appropriate standards and time of auscultation.
A total of 6750 newborns were included. The median age of auscultation was 43 hours. Cardiac murmurs were identified in 6.6% of newborns. For all CHD, 44.4% had varying degrees of murmurs. A murmur of grade ≥2 used as a reference standard for major CHD had a sensitivity of 89.58%. The false positive rate of murmurs of grade ≥2 for detecting major CHD was significantly negatively related to auscultation time, with 84.4% of false positives requiring follow-up for non-major CHD cardiac issues. Auscultation after 27 hours of life could reduce the false positive rate of major CHD from 2.7 to 0.9%.
With appropriate training, maternity hospital’s paediatricians can detect major CHD with high detection rates with an acceptable false positive rate.
The second home-made single stage accelerator mass spectrometer (SSAMS) system dedicated to radiocarbon (14C) measurements was built after the first SSAMS system was moved to Guangxi Normal University. With some improvements to the second SSAMS system, the performance has been improved. With the conditions of total ion energy of 200KeV, ions charge states of 1+ and helium as stripper gas, 14C measurements with precision of 0.5% and a background level of 0.5 pMC were achieved. Details of the system and the experimental performance are given here.
Limited information is available on the prevalence and effect of hypertriglyceridaemic–waist (HTGW) phenotype on the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in rural populations.
In the present cross-sectional study, we investigated the prevalence of the HTGW phenotype and T2DM and the strength of their association among rural adults in China.
HTGW was defined as TAG >1·7 mmol/l and waist circumference (WC) ≥90 cm for males and ≥80 cm for females. Logistic regression analysis yielded adjusted odds ratios (aOR) relating risk of T2DM with HTGW.
Adults (n 12 345) aged 22·83–92·58 years were recruited from July to August of 2013 and July to August of 2014 from a rural area of Henan Province in China.
The prevalence of HTGW and T2DM was 23·71 % (males: 15·35 %; females: 28·88 %) and 11·79 % (males: 11·15 %; females: 12·18 %), respectively. After adjustment for sex, age, smoking, alcohol drinking, blood pressure, physical activity and diabetic family history, the risk of T2DM (aOR; 95 % CI) was increased with HTGW (v. normal TAG and WC: 3·23; CI 2·53, 4·13; males: 3·37; 2·30, 4·92; females: 3·41; 2·39, 4·85). The risk of T2DM with BMI≥28·0 kg/m2, simple enlarged WC and simple disorders of lipid metabolism showed an increasing tendency (aOR=1·31, 1·75 and 2·32).
The prevalence of HTGW and T2DM has reached an alarming level among rural Chinese people, and HTGW is a significant risk factor for T2DM.
Seed reserves play vital roles in seed germination and seedling growth and their variation may be related to various environment factors, plant traits and phylogenetic history. Here, the evolutionary correlation associated with seed mass and altitude and carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) allocation of seeds among 253 alpine herbaceous plants was tested. In this study, phylogeny had strong limitations on nutrient allocation of seeds across species, and species from younger phylogenetic groups tended to have higher N and P contents, which might be considered as the evolutionary selection of seed plants. Higher seed N and P content would help seedlings to gain more survival chance and stronger competitive capacity, and their progeny would be more likely to be preserved. When phylogeny was considered, altitude only had a significant positive effect on P content, but the negative effects on seed mass were all expressed. The independent effects of altitude and seed mass suggest that the nutrient allocation of seeds might be affected by both environment and plant traits. In addition, altitude and seed mass displayed partial overlapping effects on nutrient allocation of seeds. The negative effects of seed mass were affected slightly by altitude, whereas altitude only had a significant positive effect on P content when seed mass was controlled. Above all, seed P content showed obvious and general correlations with seed mass, altitude and age of clade, which indicated that higher seed P content might be an adaptive selection of species associated with growth and survival of progeny.
Direct numerical simulation is conducted to uncover the response of a supersonic turbulent boundary layer to streamwise concave curvature and the related physical mechanisms at a Mach number of 2.95. Streamwise variations of mean flow properties, turbulence statistics and turbulent structures are analysed. A method to define the boundary layer thickness based on the principal strain rate is proposed, which is applicable for boundary layers subjected to wall-normal pressure and velocity gradients. While the wall friction grows with the wall turning, the friction velocity decreases. A logarithmic region with constant slope exists in the concave boundary layer. However, with smaller slope, it is located lower than that of the flat boundary layer. Streamwise varying trends of the velocity and the principal strain rate within different wall-normal regions are different. The turbulence level is promoted by the concave curvature. Due to the increased turbulence generation in the outer layer, secondary bumps are noted in the profiles of streamwise and spanwise turbulence intensity. Peak positions in profiles of wall-normal turbulence intensity and Reynolds shear stress are pushed outward because of the same reason. Attributed to the Görtler instability, the streamwise extended vortices within the hairpin packets are intensified and more vortices are generated. Through accumulations of these vortices with a similar sense of rotation, large-scale streamwise roll cells are formed. Originated from the very large-scale motions and by promoting the ejection, sweep and spanwise events, the formation of large-scale streamwise roll cells is the physical cause of the alterations of the mean properties and turbulence statistics. The roll cells further give rise to the vortex generation. The large number of hairpin vortices formed in the near-wall region lead to the improved wall-normal correlation of turbulence in the concave boundary layer.
Drag reduction at the external surface of a cylinder in turbulent flows along the axial direction by circumferential wall motion is studied by direct numerical simulations. The circumferential wall oscillation can lead to drag reduction due to the formation of a Stokes layer, but it may also result in centrifugal instability, which can enhance turbulence and increase drag. In the present work, the Reynolds number based on the reference friction velocity and the nominal thickness of the boundary layer is 272. A map describing the relationship between the drag-reduction rate and the control parameters, namely, the angular frequency
and the streamwise wavenumber
, is obtained at the oscillation amplitude of
is the friction velocity of the uncontrolled flow and
is the kinematic viscosity of the fluid. The maximum drag-reduction rate and the maximum drag-increase rate are both approximately 48 %, which are respectively attained at
(0.0126, 0.0148) and (0.0246, 0.0018). The drag-reduction rate can be scaled well with the help of the effective thickness of the Stokes layer. The drag increase is observed in a narrow triangular region in the frequency–wavenumber plane. The vortices induced by the centrifugal instability become the primary coherent structure in the near-wall region, and they are closely correlated with the high skin friction. In these drag-increase cases, the effective control frequency or wavenumber is crucial in scaling the drag-increase rate. As the wall curvature normalised by the boundary layer thickness becomes larger, the drag-increase region in the
plane as well as the maximum drag-increase rate also become larger. Net energy saving with a considerable drag-reduction rate is possible when reducing the oscillation amplitude. At
, a net energy saving of 18 % can be achieved with a drag-reduction rate of 25 % if only the power dissipation due to viscous stress is taken into account in an ideal actuation system.
Precious metals represent some of the least abundant elements in the earth’s crust. There is an urgent need to maximize the utilization efficiency of these metals and thereby attain affordable and sustainable products. One approach for achieving this goal is based on the development of hollow nanocrystals with a well-controlled surface structure, together with a wall thickness kept below 2 nm, or roughly 10 layers of atoms. The hollow structure eliminates the waste of interior atoms and creates an inner surface, while the controllable surface structures contribute to the optimization of catalytic activity and selectivity. In this article, we begin with a brief introduction to two methods that have been developed for the synthesis of hollow nanocrystals: the first relying on the galvanic replacement with a sacrificial template, and the second involving layer-by-layer deposition of metal atoms followed by etching. We then showcase some remarkable properties and applications of this novel class of nanostructures, including their use as effective catalysts for energy conversion, photoresponsive carriers for controlled release and drug delivery, and theranostic agents. A discussion of the existing barriers to their commercialization is also presented.
Engineering the surface structure, together with the incorporation of a second metal, is an effective strategy for boosting the catalytic activities of Pt-based catalysts toward various reactions. Here, we report a facile approach to the synthesis of Pt–Ag octahedral and tetrahedral nanocrystals covered by concave surfaces. The presence of the Ag(I) precursor not only facilitated the reduction of the Pt(IV) precursor but also led to the formation of concaved facets on the Pt–Ag nanocrystals. Besides, poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) was demonstrated to serve as a co-reductant, in addition to its role as a colloidal stabilizer. Using PVP with different molecular weights, we were able to tune the size of the Pt–Ag nanocrystals in the range of 9–25 and 14–32 nm for the octahedral and tetrahedral shapes, respectively. The Pt–Ag nanocrystals exhibited 4.6- and 2.0-fold enhancements in terms of specific and mass activities, respectively, toward methanol oxidation, when benchmarked against the commercial Pt/C catalyst. After 1000 cycles of the accelerated tests, the specific and mass activities of the Pt–Ag nanocrystals were still 3.6 and 1.6 times as high as those of the original commercial Pt/C.
We analyzed research themes in the field of disaster medicine in China to provide references for researchers to understand the research status and developing trends of this field.
Published journal articles were retrieved. A social network analysis was conducted to visualize the relations of high-frequency key words. A cluster analysis was used to classify key words. A strategic diagram analysis was conducted to visualize clusters across the entire research field.
We retrieved 3,079 articles, from which 1,749 articles and 8,284 key words were identified after screening. High-frequency key words were classified into 6 clusters. “Medical rescue” had the highest degree and betweenness centralities. Cluster 4 was located in Quadrant I of the strategic diagrams.
“Medical rescue” is the core key word, and it serves a pivotal “bridge” function. “Emergencies” and similar terms are key words with special statuses. “Natural disaster medical rescue” and “fundamental theories of disaster medicine” constitute the primary and secondary core themes, respectively. “On-site emergency treatment techniques” is a marginalized theme. The other themes are emerging themes that offer considerable scope for future development. Generally, the scope and depth of investigations in this field should be improved. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2019;13:405-409)
In this paper, a triple-wideband bandpass filter (BPF) with controllable bandwidths based on two multi-mode stub-loaded resonators (MMSLRs) and a triple-mode resonator is presented. The MMSLR is loaded with two identical folded open-ended stubs and a T-shaped stub. Each passband of the tri-band BPF is formed by four resonant modes, which provide sufficient bandwidths to meet various application requirement. By adjusting the lengths of open-ended stubs, three passband bandwidths can be controlled individually. The center frequencies of the triple-wideband BPF are allocated at 2.7, 3.67, and 5.44 GHz, with the 3 dB fractional bandwidths (FBWs) of 20.1, 14.7, and 26.3%. Among the three passbands, the highest one covers the 5 G WiFi band (5.15–5.85 GHz). The measured results of the proposed filter exhibit excellent agreement with simulated results.
Flow past two circular cylinders in cruciform arrangement is simulated by direct numerical simulations for Reynolds numbers ranging from 100 to 500. The study is aimed at investigating the local flow pattern near the gap between the two cylinders, the global vortex shedding flow in the wake of the cylinders and their effects on the force coefficients of the two cylinders. The three identified local flow patterns near the gap: trail vortex (TV), necklace vortex (NV) and vortex shedding in the gap (SG) agree with those found by flow visualization in experimental studies. As for the global wake flow, two modes of vortex shedding are identified: K mode with inclined wake vortices and P mode where the wake vortices are parallel to the cylinders. The K mode occurs when the gap is slightly greater than the boundary gap between the NV and SG. It also coexists with the SG gap flow pattern if the Reynolds number is very small (
). The flow pattern affects the force coefficient. The K mode increases the mean drag coefficient and the standard deviation of the lift coefficient at the centre of the upstream cylinder because the wake vortices converge towards the centre. The mean drag coefficient and standard deviation of the lift coefficient of the downstream cylinder decreases because of the shedding effect from the upstream cylinder.