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Little is known about the joint mental health effects of air pollution and tobacco smoking in low- and middle-income countries.
To investigate the effects of exposure to ambient fine particulate matter pollution (PM2.5) and smoking and their combined (interactive) effects on depression.
Multilevel logistic regression analysis of baseline data of a prospective cohort study (n=41785). The 3-year average concentrations of PM2.5 were estimated using US National Aeronautics and Space Administration satellite data, and depression was diagnosed using a standardised questionnaire. Three-level logistic regression models were applied to examine the associations with depression.
The odds ratio (OR) for depression was 1.09 (95% CI 1.01–1.17) per 10 μg/m3 increase in ambient PM2.5, and the association remained after adjusting for potential confounding factors (adjusted OR = 1.10, 95% CI 1.02–1.19). Tobacco smoking (smoking status, frequency, duration and amount) was also significantly associated with depression. There appeared to be a synergistic interaction between ambient PM2.5 and smoking on depression in the additive model, but the interaction was not statistically significant in the multiplicative model.
Our study suggests that exposure to ambient PM2.5 may increase the risk of depression, and smoking may enhance this effect.
Although alterations in the dendritic spine density in the brain regions may play a role in the stress-induced depression-like phenotype, the precise mechanisms are unknown. The aim was to investigate the role of spine density in the brain regions after chronic social defeat stress (CSDS).
We examined dendritic spine density in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), CA1, CA3, dentate gyrus (DG) of hippocampus, nucleus accumbens (NAc), and ventral tegmental area (VTA) of susceptible and resilient mice after CSDS.
Spine density in the prelimbic area of mPFC, CA3, and DG in the susceptible group, but not resilient group, was significantly lower than control group. In contrast, spine density in the NAc and VTA in the susceptible group, but not resilient group, was significantly higher than control group.
The results suggest that regional differences in spine density may contribute to resilience versus susceptibility in mice subjected to CSDS.
The temporal dynamics of ciliate community structure in a southern Chinese shrimp aquaculture facility were investigated during the period June–September 2012. A total of 53 species belonging to 37 genera and 17 orders were recorded based on analyses of eight samples. Ciliate abundance peaked between 16 August and 14 September 2012, while the maximum number of species occurred on 26 June 2012. Clear temporal patterns were observed in the ciliate community structure. The patterns of succession of the 10 most abundant species were consistent with the results of a Canonical Analysis of Principal coordinates (CAP) analysis. Correlation analyses showed that these patterns of succession were related to temporal changes in environmental variables. In summary, the results demonstrate that the ciliate community responds predictably to environmental variations and recovers from shrimp cultivation.
Picoeukaryotes (<2–3 μm) perform key roles for the functioning of marine ecosystems, but little is known regarding the composition and diversity of picoeukaryotes in aquaculture areas. In this study, the Illumina MiSeq platform was used for sequencing the V4 variable region within the 18S rDNA gene to analyse genetic diversity and relative abundance of picoeukaryotic communities in the Qinhuangdao scallop cultivation area of the Bohai Sea. The community was dominated by three super groups, the alveolates (54%), stramenopiles (41%) and chlorophytes (3%), and three groups, dinoflagellates (54%), pelagomonadales (40%) and prasinophytes (3%). Furthermore, a contrasting station with open water away from the eutrophic aquaculture area was chosen. The communities collected from the two stations exhibited significant differences, with higher diversity in the aquaculture area. These results provide the first snapshot of the picoeukaryotic diversity in surface waters of the Qinhuangdao scallop cultivation area, and basic data for future studies on picoeukaryote community in an aquaculture region.
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the impact of a lifestyle intervention programme, combined with a daily low-glycaemic index meal replacement, on body-weight and glycaemic control in subjects with impaired glucose regulation (IGR). Subjects with IGR were randomly assigned to an intervention group (n 46) and a control group (n 42). Both groups received health counselling at baseline. The intervention group also received a daily meal replacement and intensive lifestyle intervention to promote healthy eating habits during the first 3 months of the study, and follow-up visits performed monthly until the end of the 1-year study. Outcome measurements included changes in plasma glucose, glycated Hb (HbA1c), plasma lipids, body weight, blood pressure and body composition (such as body fat mass and visceral fat area). The results showed that body-weight loss after 1 year was significant in the intervention group compared with the control group ( − 1·8 (sem 0·35) v.− 0·6 (sem 0·40) 2·5 kg, P< 0·05). The 2 h plasma glucose concentration decreased 1·24 mmol/l in the intervention group and increased 0·85 mmol/l in the control group (P< 0·05) compared with their baseline, respectively. A 5 kg body-weight loss at 1 year was associated with a decrease of 1·49 mmol/l in 2 h plasma glucose (P< 0·01). The incidence of normal glucose regulation (NGR) in the two groups was significantly different (P= 0·001). In conclusion, the combination of regular contact, lifestyle advice and meal replacement is beneficial in promoting IGR to NGR.
We investigated crustacean zooplankton communities and their relationships to environmental factors in 13 lakes of Yunnan-Guizhou plateau to determine whether there is a consistent relationship between trophic indicators and crustacean zooplankton biomass or size structure. The lakes showed a wide range of trophic status, with total phosphorus (TP) ranging from 0.013 to 0.268 mg.L−1, and chlorophyll a from 0.9 to 76.26 μg.L−1. Continuous stocking with exotic planktivorous fish had taken place on a wide scale in these plateau lakes. About 36 species of Crustacea were found, of which Cladocera were represented by 20 taxa (12 genera), and Copepoda by 16 taxa (13 genera). Canonical correspondence analysis partitioned these species into two clusters. Physicochemical features and food-webs of different lakes seemed to be the key factors determining zooplankton species composition and distribution patterns. Between the 13 lakes, there was no significant relationship between cladocerans and chlorophyll a suggesting phytoplankton biomass was little controlled by macrozooplankton. The positive correlation between chlorophyll a and copepods suggested the high copepods biomass or size structure caused by the invasion of exotic planktivorous fish had a negative effect on water quality.
Colonial Microcystis aeruginosa were obtained when the unicellular algae were exposed to flagellate Ochromonas sp. filtrate. To investigate the benefit of this morphological change, flagellates were added into cultures of unicellular and colonial M. aeruginosa, respectively. The clearance rates of flagellates on algae were markedly decreased when they were cultivated with induced colonial M. aeruginosa. This result indicated that colony formation in M. aeruginosa was a predator-induced defense, which could reduce predation risk from flagellate. The increased content of soluble extracellular polysaccharide (sEPS) and bound extracellular polysaccharide (bEPS) may play an important role in adhering M. aeruginosa cells together to form colonies. The decrease of ΦPS II and the increase of sinking rates of induced colonial M. aeruginosa showed that the costs of grazed-induced colony formation in M. aeruginosa may reflect in the photosystem II efficiency, and in the sinking rates.
In this paper we introduce the concepts of instantaneous reversibility and instantaneous entropy production rate for inhomogeneous Markov chains with denumerable state spaces. The following statements are proved to be equivalent: the inhomogeneous Markov chain is instantaneously reversible; it is in detailed balance; its entropy production rate vanishes. In particular, for a time-periodic birth-death chain, which can be regarded as a simple version of a physical model (Brownian motors), we prove that its rotation number is 0 when it is instantaneously reversible or periodically reversible. Hence, in our model of Markov chains, the directed transport phenomenon of Brownian motors can occur only in nonequilibrium and irreversible systems.
In this paper, we address the positive recurrent diffusion process obtained by winding the solutions of a general stochastic system of coupled oscillators along several directions. Two kinds of quantities—the entropy production rate and the rotation numbers, which describe the non-equilibrium of the system from totally different points of view—are calculated and related through an explicit formula.
In this paper we consider random dynamical systems generated by compositions of one-sided independent and identically distributed random diffeomorphisms of class C2 on a compact manifold. We prove an entropy formula for such random dynamical systems without assuming the SRB condition. This result is the random version of the main result obtained by Ledrappier and Young (The metric entropy of diffeomorphisms. Part II: Relations between entropy, exponents and dimension. Ann. Math. 122 (1985), 540–574).
In this paper, we consider random dynamical systems (abbreviated as RDSs) generated by compositions of one-sided stationary random endomorphisms of class C^2 of a compact manifold. We will first introduce the notions of entropy and Lyapunov exponents for such RDSs, and then prove that the entropy formula of Pesin type holds if the sample measures of an invariant measure are absolutely continuous with respect to the Lebesgue measure on the manifold. Our result covers those obtained by Ledrappier and Young , and Liu  for i.i.d. random diffeomorphisms or (non-invertible) endomorphisms, and that obtained by  for two-sided stationary random endomorphisms. If the phase spaces are compact and finite-dimensional manifolds without boundary, this result may be considered as the almost-final form of Pesin entropy formula for RDSs with absolutely continuous invariant or sample measures.
To evaluate the efficacy of the angiogenesis inhibitor AGM-1470 for the experimental treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).
A NPC human tumour model was built by tumour-bearing nude mice using the NPC cell line CNE-2. Twenty-one BALB/c nude mice bearing CNE-2 xenografts were randomized into a treatment group and a control group. In the treatment group, AGM-1470 was injected 30 mg/kg subcutaneously every other day; while the vehicle (three per cent ethanol solution in 0.9 per cent saline) was given to the mice in control group. Tumour volumes and animal weights were measured every third day. Autopsy was performed after 18 days of treatment. The tumour tissue as well as the murine tissues of heart, kidney, and liver in each mouse were removed for formalin fixation and routine HE staining. Pathological evaluation was performed in these tissues.
There was a significant difference in tumour volume between the two groups at day 9 of treatment and this increased thereafter. At day 15 of treatment, the tumour volume was 4251 ± 559 mm3 (n = 10) in the control group versus 3122 ± 967 mm3 (n = 11) in the AGM-1470 treated group (p = 0.004); and T:C ratio (mean tumour volume of treated/mean tumour volume of control) was 0.73, resulting in a 27 per cent decrease in tumour growth. Central necrosis and consequential shrinkage of tumours occurred in both groups at the end of experiment. Physical toxicity and histological toxicity of heart, liver, and kidney did not result from AGM-1470 therapy.
AGM-1470 suppresses the growth of the human NPC cell line CNE-2. Treatment by AGM-1470 has no physical nor histological toxicity. Angiogenesis inhibitors may be effective in the treatment of the local lesion of NPC.
The sensitivity of rod- and cone-driven responses was studied in the isolated frog retina during the period of rapid dark adaptation following a conditioning flash which bleached a negligible amount of visual pigment. Following a conditioning flash, cone-driven b-wave responses were first enhanced and then depressed. The time courses of the enhancement and subsequent depression of cone-drive responses varies greatly with the intensity and wavelength of the conditioning flash, but were identical when the conditioning' flashes were matched for equal excitation of 502 nm rods. These changes in cone-driven response sensitivity were correlated with the desensitization and recovery of rods following the conditioning flash. When signal transmission from rods to second-order cells was interrupted by the addition of L-glutamate, the conditioning flash did not produce the above-described enhancement and subsequent depression of long-wavelength receptor potential responses. The suppression of cone-driven response therefore appears to be due to a synaptically mediated influence from 502 nm rods which is maximal when the rods are in the dark-adapted state, with little or no contribution from 433 nm rods, and no involvement of the pigment epithelium.
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