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Managers are installed by the organization’s stakeholders and shareholders to increase the organization’s value; at the same time, they depend on their subordinates’ acceptance to fulfill this leadership role. If the interest of the organization collides with the interest of their team, some managers act in the interest of their followers accepting potential disadvantages for their organizations and/or external stakeholders. In two experimental studies comprised mainly of German (N = 111) and US (N = 323) managers, we examined combined effects of authentic leadership, organizational identification, and self-perceived team prototypicality on managerial integrity operationalized as expressing work-related concerns to prevent organizations from harm (i.e., managerial voice). Our results show direct effects of authentic leadership and organizational identification on voice behavior across both studies. Furthermore, organizational identification increased voice for managers’ low in authentic leadership pointing at a compensation effect. Finally, leader team prototypicality decreased the effect of identification on voice for managers high in authentic leadership but increased voice for managers low in authentic leadership, but only if these managers identified with their organization. In sum, our findings complement prior research that focused mainly on safety and instrumentality concerns by emphasizing the relevance of self-related antecedents of managerial voice.
We investigate experimentally and theoretically the stability and collapse of holes in liquid layers on bounded substrates with various wettabilities. It is shown that for a liquid layer with a thickness of the order of the capillary length, a stable hole exists when the hole diameter is bigger than a critical value
. Consequently, a further increase of the liquid volume causes the hole to collapse. It is found that
increases with the size of the container, but its dependence on the contact angle is very weak. The experimental results are compared with theory, and good agreement is obtained. Moreover, we present investigations of the dynamics of the hole and the evolution of the liquid film profile after the collapse. The diameter of the hole during collapse and the minimum thickness of the liquid film shortly after the collapse obey different power laws with time. Simple theoretical models are developed which indicate that the collapse of the hole is triggered by surface tension and the subsequent closure process results from inertia, whereas the growth of the liquid column after hole closure results from the balance between the capillary force and inertia. Corresponding scaling coefficients are determined.
The presence of salt in dilatant normal faults may have a strong influence on fault mechanics in the Groningen field and on the related induced seismicity. At present, little is known of the structure of these fault zones. This study starts with the geological evolution of the Groningen area, where, during tectonic faulting, rock salt may have migrated downwards into dilatant faults. These fault zones therefore may contain inclusions of rock salt. Because of its rate-dependent mechanical properties, the presence of salt in a fault may introduce a loading-rate dependency into fault movement and affect the distribution of magnitudes of seismic events. We present a first-look study showing how these processes can be investigated using a combination of analogue and numerical modelling. Full scaling of the models and quantification of implications for induced seismicity in Groningen require further, more detailed studies: an understanding of fault zone structure in the Groningen field is required for improved predictions of induced seismicity. The analogue experiments are based on a simplified stratigraphy of the Groningen area, where it is generally thought that most of the Rotliegend faulting has taken place in the Jurassic, after deposition of the Zechstein. This suggests that, at the time of faulting, the sulphates were already transformed into brittle anhydrite. If these layers were sufficiently brittle to fault in a dilatant fashion, rock salt was able to flow downwards into the dilatant fractures. To test this hypothesis, we use sandbox experiments where we combine cohesive powder as analogue for brittle anhydrites and carbonates with viscous salt analogues to explore the developing fault geometry and the resulting distribution of salt in the faults. Using the observations from analogue models as input, numerical models investigate the stick-slip behaviour of fault zones containing ductile material qualitatively with the discrete element method (DEM). Results show that the DEM approach is suitable for modelling the seismicity of faults containing salt. The stick-slip motion of the fault becomes dependent on shear loading rate with a modification of the frequency–magnitude distribution of the generated seismic events.
We report on the EPICA Dronning Maud Land (East Antarctica) deep drilling operation. Starting with the scientific questions that led to the outline of the EPICA project, we introduce the setting of sister drillings at NorthGRIP and EPICA Dome C within the European ice-coring community. The progress of the drilling operation is described within the context of three parallel, deep-drilling operations, the problems that occurred and the solutions we developed. Modified procedures are described, such as the monitoring of penetration rate via cable weight rather than motor torque, and modifications to the system (e.g. closing the openings at the lower end of the outer barrel to reduce the risk of immersing the drill in highly concentrated chip suspension). Parameters of the drilling (e.g. core-break force, cutter pitch, chips balance, liquid level, core production rate and piece number) are discussed. We also review the operational mode, particularly in the context of achieved core length and piece length, which have to be optimized for drilling efficiency and core quality respectively. We conclude with recommendations addressing the design of the chip-collection openings and strictly limiting the cable-load drop with respect to the load at the start of the run.
Subjective cognitive decline (SCD), the potentially earliest notable manifestation of preclinical Alzheimer's disease and other dementias, was consistently associated with lower quality of life in cross-sectional studies. The aim of this study was to investigate whether such an association persists longitudinally – particularly with health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in older individuals without cognitive impairment.
Data were derived from follow-up 2–6 of the prospective Germany Study on Ageing, Cognition and Dementia in Primary Care (AgeCoDe) covering a total six-year observation period. We used linear mixed effects models to estimate the effect of SCD on HRQoL measured by the EQ-5D visual analogue scale (EQ VAS).
Of 1,387 cognitively unimpaired individuals aged 82.2 years (SD = 3.2) on average, 702 (50.6%) reported SCD and 230 (16.6%) with SCD-related concerns. Effect estimates of the linear mixed effects models revealed lower HRQoL in individuals with SCD (unadjusted: –3.7 points on the EQ VAS, 95%CI = –5.3 to –2.1; SE = 0.8; p < 0.001; adjusted: –2.9 points, 95%CI = –3.9 to –1.9; SE = 0.5; p < 0.001) than in individuals without SCD. The effect was most pronounced in SCD with related concerns (unadjusted: –5.4, 95%CI = –7.6 to –3.2; SE = 1.1; p < 0.001; adjusted: –4.3, 95%CI = –5.8 to –2.9, SE = 0.7; p < 0.001).
SCD constitutes a serious issue to older cognitively unimpaired individuals that is depicted in persisting lower levels of HRQoL beyond depressive symptoms and functional impairment. Therefore, SCD should be taken seriously in clinical practice.
As is often done, we could begin such a chapter in a volume on intergroup conflict with a dire description of the state of human society and the continuing menace of social discrimination, prejudice, injustice, and ethnic violence. However, a children's book by the Austrian writer Edith Schreiber-Wicke (1990), whose title may be translated as “When the crows were still colorful,” provides a fable that is more fun, yet insightful. It describes the story of the crows when they still came in all sorts of colors and patterns – orange with blue stripes, green with yellow spots, and so on – until one day a snowman asked the fateful (and probably spiteful) question of what a real, true crow looked like. Now the yellow-with-blue-spotted crows declared yellow with blue spots was the true color of crows, but the lilac crows argued the ur-crow was lilac colored, and all the other crows also claimed their colors were the real ones. There was arguing and quarreling; the crows began to fly with like-colored others only. The fighting ended only when one day a black rain turned all animals black. Afterward, only the crows stayed black and no longer had a reason to argue. The moral of the story? Obviously: ingroup projection is a challenge of diversity! And if we do not want to buy social harmony with dull sameness, we had better think of a more creative way to appreciate and enjoy differences.
Ingroup projection is the perception or claim that one's own group is more prototypical for a higher-order superordinate identity, hence more normative and positive, than a relevant comparison outgroup is, or more prototypical at least than the outgroup thinks the ingroup is. In the present chapter, we briefly outline the ingroup projection model (IPM; Mummendey & Wenzel, 1999; Wenzel, Mummendey, & Waldzus, 2007), discuss its key concepts and relevant recent findings, and essentially argue for two ways in which we need to construe our superordinate identities to reduce tension between diverse and divergent groups included in them: We need to advance consensus about the superordinate identity in question, and about the complexity of its representation.
We introduce an algorithm that can be used to compute the canonical height of a point on an elliptic curve over the rationals in quasi-linear time. As in most previous algorithms, we decompose the difference between the canonical and the naive height into an archimedean and a non-archimedean term. Our main contribution is an algorithm for the computation of the non-archimedean term that requires no integer factorization and runs in quasi-linear time.
Dietary protein has been shown to increase urinary Ca excretion in randomised controlled trials, and diets high in protein may have detrimental effects on bone health; however, studies examining the relationship between dietary protein and bone health have conflicting results. In the present study, we examined the relationship between dietary protein (total, animal and vegetable protein) and lumbar spine trabecular volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) among participants enrolled in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (n 1658). Protein intake was assessed using a FFQ obtained at baseline examination (2000–2). Lumbar spine vBMD was measured using quantitative computed tomography (2002–5), on average 3 years later. Multivariable linear and robust regression techniques were used to examine the associations between dietary protein and vBMD. Sex and race/ethnicity jointly modified the association of dietary protein with vBMD (P for interaction = 0·03). Among white women, higher vegetable protein intake was associated with higher vBMD (P for trend = 0·03), after adjustment for age, BMI, physical activity, alcohol consumption, current smoking, educational level, hormone therapy use, menopause and additional dietary factors. There were no consistently significant associations for total and animal protein intakes among white women or other sex and racial/ethnic groups. In conclusion, data from the present large, multi-ethnic, population-based study suggest that a higher level of protein intake, when substituted for fat, is not associated with poor bone health. Differences in the relationship between protein source and race/ethnicity of study populations may in part explain the inconsistent findings reported previously.
The belief bias effect is a phenomenon which occurs when we think that we judge an argument based on our reasoning, but are actually influenced by our beliefs and prior knowledge. Evans, Barston and Pollard carried out a psychological syllogistic reasoning task to prove this effect. Participants were asked whether they would accept or reject a given syllogism. We discuss one specific case which is commonly assumed to be believable but which is actually not logically valid. By introducing abnormalities, abduction and background knowledge, we adequately model this case under the weak completion semantics. Our formalization reveals new questions about possible extensions in abductive reasoning. For instance, observations and their explanations might include some relevant prior abductive contextual information concerning some side-effect or leading to a contestable or refutable side-effect. A weaker notion indicates the support of some relevant consequences by a prior abductive context. Yet another definition describes jointly supported relevant consequences, which captures the idea of two observations containing mutually supportive side-effects. Though motivated with and exemplified by the running psychology application, the various new general abductive context definitions are introduced here and given a declarative semantics for the first time, and have a much wider scope of application. Inspection points, a concept introduced by Pereira and Pinto, allows us to express these definitions syntactically and intertwine them into an operational semantics.
Case management undertaken by healthcare assistants in small primary care practices is effective in improving depression symptoms and adherence in patients with major depression.
To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of depression case management by healthcare assistants in small primary care practices.
Cost-effectiveness analysis on the basis of a pragmatic randomised controlled trial (2005-2008): practice-based healthcare assistants in 74 practices provided case management to 562 patients with major depression over 1 year. Our primary outcome was the incremental costeffectiveness ratio (ICER) calculated as the ratio of differences in mean costs and mean number of qualityadjusted life-years (QALYs). Our secondary outcome was the mean depression-free days (DFDs) between the intervention and control group at 24-month follow-up. The study was registered at the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number Registry: ISRCTN66386086.
Intervention v. control group: no significant difference in QALYs; significantly more DFDs (mean: 373 v. 311, P<0.01); no significant difference in mean direct healthcare costs (€4495 v. €3506, P = 0.16); considerably lower mean indirect costs (€5228 v. €7539, P = 0.06), resulting in lower total costs (€9723 v. €11 045, P = 0.41). The point estimate for the cost-utility ratio was €38 429 per QALY gained if only direct costs were considered, and ‘dominance’ of the intervention if total costs were considered. Yet, regardless of decision makers' willingness to pay per QALY, the probability of the intervention being cost-effective was never above 90%.
In small primary care practices, 1 year of case management did not increase the number of QALYs but it did increase the number of DFDs. The intervention was likely to be cost-effective.
Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) is an independent risk factor for CVD and has been proposed as a marker of vascular inflammation. Polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids (FA) and several n-6 FA are known to suppress inflammation and may influence Lp-PLA2 mass and activity. The associations of n-3 and n-6 plasma FA with Lp-PLA2 mass and activity were analysed using linear regression analysis in 2246 participants of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis; statistical adjustments were made to control for body mass, inflammation, lipids, diabetes, and additional clinical and demographic factors. Lp-PLA2 mass and activity were significantly lower in participants with the higher n-3 FA EPA (β = − 4·72, P< 0·001; β = − 1·53; P= 0·023) and DHA levels (β = − 4·47, β = − 1·87; both P< 0·001). Those in the highest quintiles of plasma EPA and DHA showed 12·71 and 19·15 ng/ml lower Lp-PLA2 mass and 5·7 and 8·90 nmol/min per ml lower Lp-PLA2 activity than those in the first quintiles, respectively. In addition, lower Lp-PLA2 mass and activity were associated with higher levels of n-6 arachidonic acid (β = − 1·63, β = − 1·30; both P< 0·001), while γ-linolenic acid was negatively associated with activity (β = − 27·7, P= 0·027). Lp-PLA2 mass was significantly higher in participants with greater plasma levels of n-6 linoleic (β = 0·828, P= 0·011) and dihomo-γ-linolenic acids (β = 4·17, P= 0·002). Based on their independent associations with Lp-PLA2 mass and activity, certain n-3 and n-6 FA may have additional influences on CVD risk. Intervention studies are warranted to assess whether these macronutrients may directly influence Lp-PLA2 expression or activity.
The 3-D and kinematic structure of the Eskimo nebula, NGC 2392, has been notoriously difficult to interpret given its complex morphology, multiple kinematic components and its nearly pole-on orientation along the line of sight. Here we present the most comprehensive high resolution spectroscopic mapping of the Eskimo planetary nebula to date. The data consist of 21 spatially resolved, long-slit echelle spectra tightly spaced over the Eskimo and along its bipolar jets. This data set allowed us to construct a velocity-resolved [NII] channel map of the nebula with a resolution of 10 km/s that disentagles the differente kinematic components of the nebula and reveals clearly for the first time the kinematic expansion pattern for each of the components. The spectroscopic information is combined with a HST image to construct the first detailed three dimensional model of the Eskimo with the code SHAPE. With this model we demostrate that the Eskimo is nearly a twin to the Saturn nebula, but rotated 90° to the line sight. Furthermore, we show that the main characteristics of our model apply to the general properties of the group of elliptical planetary nebulae with ansae, once the orientation is considered.
We present the most extensive, long-slit, high-resolution coverage of the complex planetary nebula (PN), NGC 7026. Ten spectra were acquired using the Manchester Echelle Spectrometer at San Pedro Martir Observatory in Baja California, Mexico, and each shows exquisite detail, revealing the intricate structure of this object. Incorporating these spectra into the 3-dimensional visualization and kinematic program, Shape, and using HST images of NGC 7026, we have produced a detailed structural and kinematic model of this PN. Knowledge of the 3-D structure of this nebula is relevant to understand the physics behind the extended X-ray emission in this object.
The San Pedro Mártir kinematic catalogue of galactic planetary nebulae provides spatially resolved, long-slit, Echelle spectra for about 600 planetary nebulae, representing 55 observing runs and about 4000 individual integrations to date in this first release. The project is ongoing and will continue adding spectra to the database. The data are presented wavelength calibrated and corrected for heliocentric motion. This is the most extensive and homogeneous single source of data concerning the internal kinematics of the ionized nebular material in planetary nebulae. The catalogue is available through the world wide web at http://kincatpn.astrosen.unam.mx and an article will a full description of the catalogue will soon appear in the RevMexAA.
Various wireless applications are currently under development for the unlicensed 60 GHz band. This paper describes three examples with different system requirements. The first two are point-to-multipoint wireless networks (in an airplane and in a car) and the third one is a short range point-to-point connection. Special requirements of the applications are a high number of users for the point-to-multipoint connection and a high data rate of 10 Gbit/s for the point-to-point connection system. Implementation aspects are pointed out, which are important to demonstrate the functionality of the system in a relevant environment and are key aspects to develop the related products. For example, integration aspects of the antenna into an airplane passenger seat and the receiver concept of the radio frequency-(RF) front-end to reducing the power consumption at ultrahigh data rates are described. Additionally, to determine the geometrical system architecture, ray-tracing simulations inside an aircraft and inside a car were performed.
This study focuses on the optical characterization of a novel method of forming nanoscale titanium and boron particles, which can be used to form ceramic precursors such as TiB2. TiCl4 or BCl3 reacts with heated Na vapor in a counterflow diffusion flame reactor. After Na strips the Ti or B of its Cl atoms, nanosize Ti or B particles form and become encased in NaCl, which helps to prevent agglomeration and oxidation. The two-dimensional spatial distribution of the Na dimer has been optically interrogated using planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) to clarify the influence of the concentration distributions and transport on particle formation rates.