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Democracies, Dewey and others have argued, are ideally spaces of reasons – they allow for an exchange of reasons both practical and epistemic by those willing to engage in that discourse. That requires that citizens have convictions they believe in, but it also requires that they be willing to listen to each other. This paper examines how a particular psychological attitude, “epistemic arrogance,” can undermine the achievement of these goals. The paper presents an analysis of this attitude and then examines four arguments for how its adoption – especially by the powerful – undermines the ideal of democracy as a space of reasons.
Background: Central neuropathic pain syndromes are a result of central nervous system injury, most commonly related to stroke, traumatic spinal cord injury, or multiple sclerosis. These syndromes are distinctly less common than peripheral neuropathic pain, and less is known regarding the underlying pathophysiology, appropriate pharmacotherapy, and long-term outcomes. The objective of this study was to determine the long-term clinical effectiveness of the management of central neuropathic pain relative to peripheral neuropathic pain at tertiary pain centers. Methods: Patients diagnosed with central (n=79) and peripheral (n=710) neuropathic pain were identified for analysis from a prospective observational cohort study of patients with chronic neuropathic pain recruited from seven Canadian tertiary pain centers. Data regarding patient characteristics, analgesic use, and patient-reported outcomes were collected at baseline and 12-month follow-up. The primary outcome measure was the composite of a reduction in average pain intensity and pain interference. Secondary outcome measures included assessments of function, mood, quality of life, catastrophizing, and patient satisfaction. Results: At 12-month follow-up, 13.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.6-25.8) of patients with central neuropathic pain and complete data sets (n=52) achieved a ≥30% reduction in pain, whereas 38.5% (95% CI, 25.3-53.0) achieved a reduction of at least 1 point on the Pain Interference Scale. The proportion of patients with central neuropathic pain achieving both these measures, and thus the primary outcome, was 9.6% (95% CI, 3.2-21.0). Patients with peripheral neuropathic pain and complete data sets (n=463) were more likely to achieve this primary outcome at 12 months (25.3% of patients; 95% CI, 21.4-29.5) (p=0.012). Conclusion: Patients with central neuropathic pain syndromes managed in tertiary care centers were less likely to achieve a meaningful improvement in pain and function compared with patients with peripheral neuropathic pain at 12-month follow-up.
Antarctic shags Phalacrocorax (atriceps) bransfieldensis are the southernmost cormorants in the world and assessment of their conservation status has been complicated by the logistical challenges of obtaining regular estimates of population size, as well as by taxonomic ambiguity of the blue-eyed shag complex. The available information on the taxonomy, distribution and population size of Antarctic shags are reviewed and a refined estimate of the global population is presented: 11 366 breeding pairs, plus an additional 1984 pairs of uncertain taxonomic status in the South Orkney Islands. This analysis suggests a possible spatial shift in the distribution of Antarctic shags similar to that reported for other Antarctic seabirds, which probably reflects a gradient in environmental changes along the western Antarctic Peninsula. This review should aid future conservation and management assessments.
Physiological response to stress has been linked to a variety of healthy and pathological conditions. The current study conducted a multilevel examination of interactions among environmental toxins (i.e., neighborhood crime and child maltreatment) and specific genetic polymorphisms of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene (eNOS) and GABA(A) receptor subunit alpha-6 gene (GABRA6). One hundred eighty-six children were recruited at age 4. The presence or absence of child maltreatment as well as the amount of crime that occurred in their neighborhood during the previous year were determined at that time. At age 9, the children were brought to the lab, where their physiological response to a cognitive challenge (i.e., change in the amplitude of the respiratory sinus arrhythmia) was assessed and DNA samples were collected for subsequent genotyping. The results confirmed that complex Gene × Gene, Environment × Environment, and Gene × Environment interactions were associated with different patterns of respiratory sinus arrhythmia reactivity. The implications for future research and evidence-based intervention are discussed.
To describe fruit and vegetable intake of 11-year-old children in ten European countries and compare it with current dietary guidelines.
Cross-sectional survey. Intake was assessed using a previously validated questionnaire containing a pre-coded 24 h recall and an FFQ which were completed in the classroom. Portion sizes were calculated using a standardized protocol.
Surveys were performed in schools regionally selected in eight countries and nationally representative in two countries.
A total of 8158 children from 236 schools across Europe participating in the PRO GREENS project.
The total mean consumption of fruit and vegetables was between 220 and 345 g/d in the ten participating countries. Mean intakes did not reach the WHO population goal of ≥400 g/d in any of the participating countries. Girls had a significantly higher intake of total fruit and vegetables than boys in five of the countries (Sweden, Finland, Iceland, Bulgaria and Slovenia). Mean total fruit intake ranged between 114 and 240 g/d and vegetable intake between 73 and 141 g/d. When using the level ≥400 g/d as a cut-off, only 23·5 % (13·8–37·0 %) of the studied children, depending on country and gender, met the WHO recommendation (fruit juice excluded).
Fruit and vegetable consumption was below recommended levels among the schoolchildren in all countries and vegetable intake was lower than fruit intake. The survey shows that there is a need for promotional activities to improve fruit and vegetable consumption in this age group.
Family meals have been negatively associated with overweight in children, while television (TV) viewing during meals has been associated with a poorer diet. The aim of the present study was to assess the association of eating family breakfast and dinner, and having a TV on during dinner, with overweight in nine European countries and whether these associations differed between Northern and Southern & Eastern Europe.
Cross-sectional data. Schoolchildren reported family meals and TV viewing. BMI was based on parental reports on height and weight of their children. Cut-off points for overweight by the International Obesity Task Force were used. Logistic regressions were performed adjusted by age, gender and parental education.
Schools in Northern European (Sweden, the Netherlands, Iceland, Germany and Finland) and Southern & Eastern European (Portugal, Greece, Bulgaria and Slovenia) countries, participating in the PRO GREENS project.
Children aged 10–12 years in (n 6316).
In the sample, 21 % of the children were overweight, from 35 % in Greece to 10 % in the Netherlands. Only a few associations were found between family meals and TV viewing during dinner with overweight in the nine countries. Northern European children, compared with other regions, were significantly more likely to be overweight if they had fewer family breakfasts and more often viewed TV during dinner.
The associations between family meals and TV viewing during dinner with overweight were few and showed significance only in Northern Europe. Differences in foods consumed during family meals and in health-related lifestyles between Northern and Southern & Eastern Europe may explain these discrepancies.
To examine which factors act as mediators between parental educational level and children's fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake in ten European countries.
Cross-sectional data were collected in ten European countries participating in the PRO GREENS project (2009). Schoolchildren completed a validated FFQ about their daily F&V intake and filled in a questionnaire about availability of F&V at home, parental facilitation of F&V intake, knowledge of recommendations about F&V intake, self-efficacy to eat F&V and liking for F&V. Parental educational level was determined from a questionnaire given to parents. The associations were examined with multilevel mediation analyses.
Schools in Bulgaria, Finland, Germany, Greece, Iceland, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Slovenia and Sweden.
Eleven-year-old children (n 8159, response rate 72%) and their parents.
In five of the ten countries, children with higher educated parents were more likely to report eating fruits daily. This association was mainly mediated by knowledge but self-efficacy, liking, availability and facilitation also acted as mediators in some countries. Parents’ education was positively associated with their children's daily vegetable intake in seven countries, with knowledge and availability being the strongest mediators and self-efficacy and liking acting as mediators to some degree.
Parental educational level correlated positively with children's daily F&V intake in most countries and the pattern of mediation varied among the participating countries. Future intervention studies that endeavour to decrease the educational-level differences in F&V intake should take into account country-specific features in the relevant determinants of F&V intake.
Scholars of political parties frequently note that a party's candidates are aided by the presence of a consistent and favourable party brand name. We argue that partisan success in maintaining a consistent position on important policy issues hinges on how their role in the government motivates their strategies about public policy formation. Specifically, when parties share control of government institutions, parties need to balance their electoral interest in promoting a consistent brand name with the need to generate public policy that leads to effective governance. When control is held by one party, the costs and benefits of effective governance are born entirely by the majority, absolving both parties of the need to compromise on the substance of policy. By employing item response theory methods to assess patterns of party voting on deficit issues, we find strong support for these hypotheses.
This article discusses redevelopment strategies to resolve complex issues at Brownfield sites and uses case studies to highlight successes at two complicated brownfields. Many less complicated brownfield properties have already been redeveloped and returned to productive uses. While this achievement is commendable, many more difficult brownfields remain vacant and underutilized. This article highlights creative redevelopment strategies for these brownfields and discusses methods that can be used to resolve issues associated with owning and redeveloping a contaminated site, including financing hurdles, cost-recovery actions, liability concerns, and maintaining a vision for the end use. Historical insurance assets, CERCLA cost recovery and RCRA citizen suits, grants and tax incentives, and state voluntary cleanup programs are among the tools discussed. This article also provides practical tips for ensuring that these funding sources are maximized and that costs incurred in remediating Brownfields can be recovered to the greatest extent possible. Two case studies are highlighted: the Evansville Greenway Site in Evansville, Indiana, and the Quanta Resources Site in Long Island City, New York. At the Evansville Greenway Site, the Evansville Greenway and Remediation Trust used creative sources of funding to transform a contaminated former scrap yard into a beautiful bike path and greenway, a key part of a planned 42-mile walking/biking trail encircling Evansville. The Evansville Greenway and Remediation Trust was able to marshal brownfield grants, over $3,500,000 in insurance assets, and $4,375,000 from other responsible parties through cost-recovery litigation. This case study demonstrates how a variety of funding options can be combined for the benefit of municipalities and their residents in restoring brownfield properties to public uses. The Quanta Resources matter involved entry of a notorious abandoned waste oil–processing facility (previously operated by a convicted environmental criminal) into New York State's Voluntary Cleanup Program. Strategic site investigation efforts combined with extensive analysis of historical documents led to the identification of responsible parties and a negotiated resolution that will restore the property and adjacent parcels for future commercial use.
While other chapters in this book address the role of national political cultures in the governance of DNA databases, in this chapter we examine how other forensic systems have provided models for the organisation of such databases. We will argue that many, but by no means all, aspects of DNA profiling followed patterns established historically by earlier techniques. In particular, we focus on fingerprint identification, the technique we view as most closely analogous to DNA profiling on several levels. Both fingerprinting and DNA profiling seek to identify particular bodies as sources of crime scene traces by examining correspondences between those traces and reference samples taken from persons in police custody. Both techniques proved useful enough from a social control perspective to warrant large government investments in developing databases of records indexed according to bodily markers. Finally, both fingerprinting and DNA profiling have enjoyed primacy as ‘gold standards’ in an imagined hierarchy of forensic techniques. Indeed, even today when DNA profiling is sometimes viewed as having supplanted fingerprinting, one recent report has noted that, ‘the more humble fingerprint retains its status as the most commonly used method of identification and is a cornerstone of forensic crime scene investigation’ (Nuffield Council on Bioethics 2007: 15).
Profiling with DNA is widely heralded as a novel and distinctively scientific technique for analysing criminal evidence that is having revolutionary impact on criminal justice systems throughout the world.
In 1872 John Hullah was appointed Inspector of Music in Training Colleges and his first act was to introduce a practical examination for each of the students. Each year he visited all of the colleges receiving financial aid from the Government to examine the students after which he wrote up his findings in a report for the Committee of Council on Education. These reports, and those of his successor John Stainer, give a unique account of music in the training colleges in the period 1872 to 1899.
This paper follows the history of an object. The purpose of doing so is to come to terms with a distinctive kind of research object – which we are calling a ‘test object’ – as well as to chronicle a significant line of research and technology development associated with the broader nanoscience/nanotechnology movement. A test object is one of a family of epistemic things that makes up the material culture of laboratory science. Depending upon the case, it can have variable shadings of practical, mathematical and epistemic significance. Clear cases of test objects have highly regular and reproducible visible properties that can be used for testing instruments and training novices. The test object featured in this paper is the silicon (111) 7×7, a particular surface configuration (or, as it is often called, a ‘reconstruction’) of silicon atoms. Research on this object over a period of several decades has been closely bound up with the development of novel instruments for visualizing atomic structures. Despite having little direct commercial value, the Si(111) 7×7 also has been a focal object for the formation of a research community bridging industry and academia. It exhibits a complex structure that became a sustained focus of observation and modelling. Our study follows shifts in the epistemic status of the Si(111) 7×7, and uses it to re-examine familiar conceptions of representation and observation in the history, philosophy and social study of science.
By application of the neutral model of phenotypic evolution, quantitative estimates of the rate of input of genetic variance by polygenic mutation can be extracted from divergence experiments as well as from the response of an inbred base population to selection. The analytical methods are illustrated through a survey of data on a diversity of organisms including Drosophila, Tribolium, mice, and several crop species. The mutational rate of introduction of genetic variance (Vm) scaled by the environmental variance (VE) is shown to vary between populations, species, and characters with a range of approximately 10−4 to 5 × 10−2. Vm/VE for Drosophila viability is somewhat below this range, while hybrid dysgenesis may temporarily inflate Vm/VE beyond 10−1. Potential sources of bias and error in the estimation of Vm are discussed, as are the practical implications of the observed limits to Vm/VE for projecting the long-term response to selection and for testing adaptational hypotheses.