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Very metal-poor (VMP, [Fe/H]<-2.0) stars serve as invaluable repositories of insights into the nature and evolution of the first-generation stars formed in the early galaxy. The upcoming China Space Station Telescope (CSST) will provide us with a large amount of spectral data that may contain plenty of VMP stars, and thus it is crucial to determine the stellar atmospheric parameters (Teff , log g, and [Fe/H]) for low-resolution spectra similar to the CSST spectra (R ∼ 200). This study introduces a novel two-dimensional Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) model, comprised of three convolutional layers and two fully connected layers. The model’s proficiency is assessed in estimating stellar parameters, particularly metallicity, from low-resolution spectra (R ∼ 200), with a specific focus on enhancing the search for VMP stars within the CSST spectral data. We mainly use 10,008 spectra of VMP stars from LAMOST DR3, and 16,638 spectra of non-VMP stars ([Fe/H]>-2.0) from LAMOST DR8 for the experiments and apply random forest and support vector machine methods to make comparisons. The resolution of all spectra is reduced to R ∼ 200 to match the resolution of the CSST, followed by preprocessing and transformation into two-dimensional spectra for input into the CNN model. The validation and practicality of this model are also tested on the MARCS synthetic spectra. The results show that using the CNN model constructed in this paper, we obtain Mean Absolute Error (MAE) values of 99.40 K for Teff , 0.22 dex for log g, 0.14 dex for [Fe/H], and 0.26 dex for [C/Fe] on the test set. Besides, the CNN model can efficiently identify VMP stars with a precision rate of 94.77%, a recall rate of 93.73%, and an accuracy of 95.70%. This paper powerfully demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed CNN model in estimating stellar parameters for low-resolution spectra (R ∼ 200) and recognizing VMP stars that are of interest for stellar population and galactic evolution work.
Arazyme, an alkaline metalloprotease, is produced by Serratia proteamaculans, a symbiotic bacterium isolated from the intestinal ecosystem of Nephila clavata. Arazyme is known to play a crucial role in facilitating the digestion process in N. clavata. Recently, there has been increasing interest in exploring invertebrate-associated gut symbionts as a valuable source of novel and biologically active enzymes. Animal husbandry has shown significant interest in this spider-derived bioactive enzyme. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive review of the current understanding and knowledge of arazyme in the context of animal husbandry, offering valuable references for potential applications of this enzyme.
Poor oral health is increasingly recognised as an important comorbidity in people with psychiatric illness. One risk factor is psychotropic-induced dry mouth.
To perform a systematic review of the severity of dry mouth due to psychotropic drugs in adults (CRD42021239725). Study quality was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool.
We searched the following databases: PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CINAHL and Web of Science. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) measuring the severity of drug-induced hyposalivation and xerostomia.
Eighteen RCTs with 605 participants were included. Severity of drug-induced dry mouth was compared among eight drug classes and/or against placebo. All studies were published 20 to 40 years ago and included tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), serotonin specific reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and other drug classes. Meta-analysis was not feasible owing to design heterogeneity. TCAs caused more severe dry mouth, both objectively and subjectively, than placebo or other drug classes. SSRIs were generally associated with less severe symptoms. However, there was no information on antipsychotics or more recently available antidepressants, and there was minimal information on mood stabilisers. Most studies were on healthy subjects, limiting the generalisability of findings. Only one study measured both objective and subjective dry mouth, which have different clinical implications.
Psychotropic-induced dry mouth is a poorly researched area, and well-designed RCTs of newer psychotropic drugs using standardised objective and subjective measures are indicated. Given the ongoing use of TCAs for treatment-resistant depression, prescribers need to remain vigilant for xerostomia.
We report here the first hundred-watt continuouswave fiber gas laser in H2-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (PCF) by stimulated Raman scattering. The pump source is a homemade narrow-linewidth fiber oscillator with a 3 dB linewidth of 0.15 nm at the maximum output power of 380 W. To efficiently and stably couple several-hundred-watt pump power into the hollow core and seal the gas, a hollow-core fiber end-cap is fabricated and used at the input end. A maximum power of 110 W at 1153 nm is obtained in a 5 m long hollow-core PCF filled with 36 bar H2, and the conversion efficiency of the first Stokes power is around 48.9%. This work paves the way for high-power fiber gas Raman lasers.
Coastal eutrophication and hypoxia remain a persistent environmental crisis despite the great efforts to reduce nutrient loading and mitigate associated environmental damages. Symptoms of this crisis have appeared to spread rapidly, reaching developing countries in Asia with emergences in Southern America and Africa. The pace of changes and the underlying drivers remain not so clear. To address the gap, we review the up-to-date status and mechanisms of eutrophication and hypoxia in global coastal oceans, upon which we examine the trajectories of changes over the 40 years or longer in six model coastal systems with varying socio-economic development statuses and different levels and histories of eutrophication. Although these coastal systems share common features of eutrophication, site-specific characteristics are also substantial, depending on the regional environmental setting and level of social-economic development along with policy implementation and management. Nevertheless, ecosystem recovery generally needs greater reduction in pressures compared to that initiated degradation and becomes less feasible to achieve past norms with a longer time anthropogenic pressures on the ecosystems. While the qualitative causality between drivers and consequences is well established, quantitative attribution of these drivers to eutrophication and hypoxia remains difficult especially when we consider the social economic drivers because the changes in coastal ecosystems are subject to multiple influences and the cause–effect relationship is often non-linear. Such relationships are further complicated by climate changes that have been accelerating over the past few decades. The knowledge gaps that limit our quantitative and mechanistic understanding of the human-coastal ocean nexus are identified, which is essential for science-based policy making. Recognizing lessons from past management practices, we advocate for a better, more efficient indexing system of coastal eutrophication and an advanced regional earth system modeling framework with optimal modules of human dimensions to facilitate the development and evaluation of effective policy and restoration actions.
We presented the first photometric and orbital period investigations for four W Ursae Majoris-type binaries: V473 And, V805 And, LQ Com, and EG CVn. The photometric solutions suggested that V805 And and LQ Com are two total-eclipse contact binaries, while V473 And and EG CVn are partial-eclipse ones. V473 And and LQ Com belong to the A-subtype contact binaries, while V805 And and EG CVn belong to the W subtype. The O’Connell effects found in the light curves of V805 And, LQ Com, and EG CVn can be interpreted as a result of a cool spot on the surface of their less massive and hotter primary components. Based on two different methods, the absolute physical parameters were properly determined. Combining the eclipse timings derived from our observations and survey’s data with those collected from literature, we investigated their orbital period variations. The results show that the orbital periods of V473 And, V805 And, and EG CVn are undergoing a secular decrease/increase superposed a periodic variation, while LQ Com exhibits a possible cyclic period variation with a small amplitude. The secular period changes are caused mainly by the mass transfer between two components, while the cyclic period oscillations may be interpreted as the results of either the light-time effect due to the third body or the cyclic magnetic activity. Finally, we made a statistical investigation for nearly 200 contact binaries with reliable physical parameters. The statistical results suggested that the W-subtype systems are more evolved than the A-subtype ones. Furthermore, the evolutionary direction of A-subtype into W-subtype systems is also discussed. The opposite evolutionary direction seems to be unlikely because it requires an increase of the total mass, the orbital angular momentum, and the temperature differences between two components of a binary system.
A novel concept—the contact-based landing on a mobile platform—is proposed in this paper. An adaptive backstepping controller is designed to deal with the unknown disturbances in the interactive process, and the contact-based landing mission is implemented under the hybrid force/motion control framework. A rotorcraft aerial vehicle system and a ground mobile platform are designed to conduct flight experiments, evaluating the feasibility of the proposed landing scheme and control strategy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time a rotorcraft unmanned aerial vehicle has been implemented to conduct a contact-based landing. To improve system autonomy in future applications, vision-based recognition and localization methods are studied, contributing to the detection of a partially occluded cooperative object or at a close range. The proposed recognition algorithms are tested on a ground platform and evaluated in several simulated scenarios, indicating the algorithm’s effectiveness.
To integrate the uneven terrain adaptivity of legged robots and the fast capacity of wheeled robots on even terrains, a four wheel-legged robot is addressed and the cooperative control strategy of wheels and legs based on attitude balance is investigated. Firstly, the kinematics of wheel-legged robot is analyzed, which contains the legged and wheeled motion modal. Secondly, the cooperative control strategy of wheel-legged robot based on attitude balance is proposed. The attitude is calculated by using the quaternion method and complementary filtering, and the attitude stability control of the wheel-legged robot is studied. The trajectory planning of leg motion including walk and trot gait is implemented, and the differential control of wheeled motion is deduced. And then, the cooperative motion control of wheels and legs is achieved by keeping the attitude balance of robot body. Finally, a small prototype is set up to validate the feasibility and effectiveness of proposed method. The experimental results show that the established wheel-legged robot can do walk, trot, and wheel-leg compound motion to overcome many complex terrains and environments.
The gut microbiota plays an important role in animals’ survival in their local environments. The intertidal rocky shore is a key interface of oceanic, atmospheric and terrestrial environments, and the transmission modes of microbes between an intertidal host and the environment are complex and largely ignored. In the present study, we characterized the gut microbiota of the intertidal snail Nerita yoldii, which is experiencing a northward range shift under the combined impacts of climate change and anthropogenic seascape transformation, and also determined the nearby environmental microbiota on the rock and in the seawater at five locations along the snail's distribution range in China. The gut microbial communities were significantly different from the environmental microbial communities, and the dominant phyla were Tenericutes, Cyanobacteria and Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria in the gut, rock and seawater microbial communities, respectively. At the genus level, Mycoplasma, with a relative abundance of 48.0 ± 10.2%, was the dominant genus in the gut microbial community, however, the relative abundances of this genus on the rock and in the water were low. These results imply that the gut microbial community of the intertidal snail N. yoldii is relatively independent from the environmental microbial community, and the dominant genus Mycoplasma in the gut, that is rare in the environment, can potentially assist the snail living in the harsh intertidal environment, especially at its northernmost distribution range edge.
To accurately predict propagation dynamics for single or multiple change propagations across different product development stages in a sequential or concurrent way is critical for decision-making of implementing change requests. In this paper, a change propagation dynamic model is built based on the compartmentalization of engineering entities into susceptible engineering entities and affected engineering entities (SA), the ordinary differential equations for describing the rate of affected entities with respect to the total ones and the duration for resolving all the changes for every moment are presented by combining the calculations of change impacts with different split and joint junctions. Considering the difficulty of finding analytical solutions to the differential equations, algorithms for sequential and concurrent simulations of change propagations across different development stages, and random and GA (Genetic Algorithm)-based optimal selections of feasible propagation paths are developed to obtain numerical solutions for single and multiple change requests. Simulation results show that change ripples and blossoms can be observed in both sequential and concurrent change propagations, and these propagation patterns are not sensitive to the initial change effect and the threshold value for propagations, while critical change propagation paths and the number of initiated changes have important effects on both concurrent and sequential change propagation process. It is also demonstrated that concurrent propagation strategy is advantageous for processing single or few of initiated changes since it can shorten product redevelopment time, sequential propagation strategy has an advantage of robustness for handling multiple initiated change requests.
Grey matter (GM) reduction is a consistent observation in established late stages of schizophrenia, but patients in the untreated early stages of illness display an increase as well as a decrease in GM distribution relative to healthy controls (HC). The relative excess of GM may indicate putative compensatory responses, though to date its relevance is unclear.
343 first-episode treatment-naïve patients with schizophrenia (FES) and 342 HC were recruited. Multivariate source-based morphometry was performed to identify covarying ‘networks' of grey matter concentration (GMC). Neurocognitive scores using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) and symptom burden using the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS) were obtained. Bivariate linear relationships between GMC and cognition/symptoms were studied.
Compared to healthy subjects, FES had prominently lower GMC in two components; the first consists of the anterior insula, inferior frontal gyrus, anterior cingulate and the second component with the superior temporal gyrus, precuneus, inferior/superior parietal lobule, cuneus, and lingual gyrus. Higher GMC was seen in adjacent areas of the middle and superior temporal gyrus, middle frontal gyrus, inferior parietal cortex and putamen. Greater GMC of this component was associated with lower duration of untreated psychosis, less severe positive symptoms and better performance on cognitive tests.
In untreated stages of schizophrenia, both a distributed lower and higher GMC is observable. While the higher GMC is relatively modest, it occurs across frontoparietal, temporal and subcortical regions in association with reduced illness burden suggesting a compensatory role for higher GMC in the early stages of schizophrenia.
In training deep learning networks, the optimizer and related learning rate are often used without much thought or with minimal tuning, even though it is crucial in ensuring a fast convergence to a good quality minimum of the loss function that can also generalize well on the test dataset. Drawing inspiration from the successful application of cyclical learning rate policy to computer vision tasks, we explore how cyclical learning rate can be applied to train transformer-based neural networks for neural machine translation. From our carefully designed experiments, we show that the choice of optimizers and the associated cyclical learning rate policy can have a significant impact on the performance. In addition, we establish guidelines when applying cyclical learning rates to neural machine translation tasks.
Reconstructing the history of elite communication in ancient China benefits from additional archaeological evidence. We combine textual analysis with new human stable carbon and nitrogen isotope data from two Chu burials in the Jingzhou area to reveal significant dietary differences among Chu nobles of the middle Warring States period (c. 350 BC). This research provides important new information on the close interaction between the aristocratic families of the Qin and Chu.
Metabolically healthy obesity (MHO) might be an alternative valuable target in obesity treatment. We aimed to assess whether alternative Mediterranean (aMED) diet and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet were favourably associated with obesity and MHO phenotype in a Chinese multi-ethnic population. We conducted this cross-sectional analysis using the baseline data of the China Multi-Ethnic Cohort study that enrolled 99 556 participants from seven diverse ethnic groups. Participants with self-reported cardiometabolic diseases were excluded to eliminate possible reverse causality. Marginal structural logistic models were used to estimate the associations, with confounders determined by directed acyclic graph (DAG). Among 65 699 included participants, 11·2 % were with obesity. MHO phenotype was present in 5·7 % of total population and 52·7 % of population with obesity. Compared with the lowest quintile, the highest quintile of DASH diet score had 23 % decreased odds of obesity (OR = 0·77, 95 % CI 0·71, 0·83, Ptrend < 0·001) and 27 % increased odds of MHO (OR = 1·27, 95 % CI 1·10, 1·48, Ptrend = 0·001) in population with obesity. However, aMED diet showed no obvious favourable associations. Further adjusting for BMI did not change the associations between diet scores and MHO. Results were robust to various sensitivity analyses. In conclusion, DASH diet rather than aMED diet is associated with reduced risk of obesity and presents BMI-independent metabolic benefits in this large population-based study. Recommendation for adhering to DASH diet may benefit the prevention of obesity and related metabolic disorders in Chinese population.
Deficits in event-related potential (ERP) including duration mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3a have been demonstrated widely in chronic schizophrenia (SZ) but inconsistent findings were reported in first-episode patients. Psychotropic medications and diagnosis might contribute to different findings on MMN/P3a ERP in first-episode patients. The present study examined MMN and P3a in first episode drug naïve SZ and bipolar disorder (BPD) patients and explored the relationships among ERPs, neurocognition and global functioning.
Twenty SZ, 24 BPD and 49 age and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled in this study. Data of clinical symptoms [Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS), Young Manic Rating Scale (YMRS), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD)], neurocognition [Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), Cattell's Culture Fair Intelligence Test (CCFT), Delay Matching to Sample (DMS), Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVP)], and functioning [Functioning Assessment Short Test (FAST)] were collected. P3a and MMN were elicited using a passive auditory oddball paradigm.
Significant MMN and P3a deficits and impaired neurocognition were found in both SZ and BPD patients. In SZ, MMN was significantly correlated with FAST (r = 0.48) and CCFT (r = −0.31). In BPD, MMN was significantly correlated with DMS (r = −0.54). For P3a, RVP and FAST scores were significant predictors in SZ, whereas RVP, WAIS and FAST were significant predictors in BPD.
The present study found deficits in MMN, P3a, neurocognition in drug naïve SZ and BPD patients. These deficits appeared to link with levels of higher-order cognition and functioning.
No relevant studies have yet been conducted to explore which measurement can best predict the survival time of patients with cancer cachexia. This study aimed to identify an anthropometric measurement that could predict the 1-year survival of patients with cancer cachexia. We conducted a nested case–control study using data from a multicentre clinical investigation of cancer from 2013 to 2020. Cachexia was defined using the Fearon criteria. A total of 262 patients who survived less than 1 year and 262 patients who survived more than 1 year were included in this study. Six candidate variables were selected based on clinical experience and previous studies. Five variables, BMI, mid-arm circumference, mid-arm muscle circumference, calf circumference and triceps skin fold (TSF), were selected for inclusion in the multivariable model. In the conditional logistic regression analysis, TSF (P = 0·014) was identified as a significant independent protective factor. A similar result was observed in all patients with cancer cachexia (n 3084). In addition, a significantly stronger positive association between TSF and the 1-year survival of patients with cancer cachexia was observed in participants aged > 65 years (OR: 0·94; 95 % CI 0·89, 0·99) than in those aged ≤ 65 years (OR: 0·96; 95 % CI 0·93, 0·99; Pinteraction = 0·013) and in participants with no chronic disease (OR: 0·92; 95 % CI 0·87, 0·97) than in those with chronic disease (OR: 0·97; 95 % CI 0·94, 1·00; Pinteraction = 0·049). According to this study, TSF might be a good anthropometric measurement for predicting 1-year survival in patients with cancer cachexia.
Spodoptera litura is an important pest that causes significant economic damage to numerous crops worldwide. Sex pheromones (SPs) mediate sexual communication in S. litura and show a characteristic degree of rhythmic activity, occurring mainly during the scotophase; however, the specific regulatory mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we employed a genome-wide analysis to identify eight candidate circadian clock genes in S. litura. Sequence characteristics and expression patterns were analyzed. Our results demonstrated that some circadian clock genes might regulate the biosynthesis and perception of SPs by regulating the rhythmic expression of SP biosynthesis-related genes and SP perception-related genes. Interestingly, all potential genes exhibited peak expression in the scotophase, consistent with the SP could mediate courtship and mating behavior in S. litura. Our findings are helpful in elucidating the molecular mechanism by which circadian clock genes regulate sexual communication in S. litura.
Accurate control and measurement of real-time sample temperature are critical for the understanding and interpretation of the experimental results from in situ heating experiments inside environmental transmission electron microscope (ETEM). However, quantifying the real-time sample temperature remains a challenging task for commercial in situ TEM heating devices, especially under gas conditions. In this work, we developed a home-made micro-electrical-mechanical-system (MEMS) heater with unprecedented small temperature gradient and thermal drift, which not only enables the temperature evolution caused by gas injection to be measured in real-time but also makes the key heat dissipation path easier to model to theoretically understand and predict the temperature decrease. A new parameter termed as “gas cooling ability (H)”, determined purely by the physical properties of the gas, can be used to compare and predict the gas-induced temperature decrease by different gases. Our findings can act as a reference for predicting the real temperature for in situ heating experiments without closed-loop temperature sensing capabilities in the gas environment, as well as all gas-related heating systems.
Although poverty associated with severe mental illness (SMI) has been documented in many studies, little long-term evidence of social drift exists. This study aimed to unravel the poverty transitions among persons with SMI in a fast change community in China.
Two mental health surveys, using the International Classification of Disease (ICD-10), were conducted in the same six townships of Xinjin county, Chengdu, China in 1994 and 2015. A total of 308 persons with SMI identified in 1994 were followed up in 2015. The profiles of poverty transitions were identified and regression modelling methods were applied to determine the predictive factors of poverty transitions.
The poverty rate of persons with SMI increased from 39.9% to 49.4% in 1994 and 2015. A larger proportion of them had fallen into poverty (27.3%) rather than moved out of it (17.8%). Those persons with SMI who had lost work ability, had physical illness and more severe mental disabilities in 1994, as well as those who had experienced negative changes on these factors were more likely to live in persistent poverty or fall into poverty. Higher education level and medical treatment were major protective factors of falling into poverty.
This study shows long-term evidence on the social drift of persons with SMI during the period of rapid social development in China. Further targeted poverty alleviation interventions should be crucial for improving treatment and mental recovery and alleviating poverty related to SMI.