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En este trabajo se describen las relaciones que las sociedades humanas establecieron con su entorno durante el período Formativo (3000-1000 aP) en la Pampa del Tamarugal, Desierto de Atacama, desde una perspectiva teórico-metodológica que pone el acento en el potencial del registro ecofactual. Éste, al mediar entre lo cultural y lo ambiental, proporciona información vital para una mejor comprensión de la relación entre naturaleza y cultura construida por estas sociedades. Queremos demostrar que este proceso forma parte de una larga historia de racionalización del desierto y de sus recursos silvestres, locales e introducidos, así como de la vivencia particular que tuvieron estas comunidades andinas. Por consiguiente, proponemos que la intervención humana en la Pampa del Tamarugal puede ser entendida como un cambio no sólo ecológico y económico, sino también cosmológico.
The practice of neuropsychology offers a unique yet multidimensional approach to clinical assessment, with its emphasis on the Bio-Psycho-Social Model. This chapter addresses a variety of issues that are relevant in our field, beginning with a discussion of the recommended model of training in neuropsychology and purposes of neuropsychological assessment. To give the reader a sense of the current context of neuropsychological assessment, we also describe the most typical work settings and specific issues in each, as well as populations seen and instruments used in our field. We then discuss some aspects of the assessment process that neuropsychologists consider, in addition to common challenges of our clinical and research practice, such as the assessment of practice effects, effort, individuals from diverse cultural and linguistic backgrounds, and general validity issues. We end this chapter with a brief discussion of the future of neuropsychological assessment and how technology may play a key role in shaping the activities and settings of our practice.
Previous researchers have examined the frequency at which healthy participants obtain one or more low scores on neuropsychological test batteries, proposing five psychometric principles of multivariate base rates: (a) low scores are common, with their frequency contingent on (b) the low score cutoff used, (c) the number of tests administered/interpreted, and (d) the demographic characteristics and (e) intelligence of participants. The current study explored whether these principles applied to high scores as well, using the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS).
Multivariate base rates of high scores (≥75th, ≥84th, ≥91st, ≥95th, and ≥98th percentiles) were derived for a three-test, four-test, and full D-KEFS battery, using the adult portion of the normative sample (aged 16–89 years; N = 1050) stratified by education and intelligence. The full D-KEFS battery provides 16 total achievement scores (primary indicators of executive function).
High scores occurred commonly for all batteries. For the three-test battery, 24.1% and 12.4% had 1 or more scores ≥95th percentile and ≥98th percentile, respectively. High scores occurred more often for longer batteries: 61.6%, 72.9%, and 87.8% obtained 1 or more scores ≥84th percentile for the three-test, four-test, and full batteries, respectively. The frequency of high scores increased with more education and higher intelligence.
The principles of multivariate base rates also applied to high D-KEFS scores: high scores were common and contingent on the cutoff used, number of tests administered/interpreted, and education/intelligence of examinees. Base rates of high scores may help clinicians identify true cognitive strengths and detect cognitive deficits in high functioning people.
The Altamira Yellowthroat Geothlypis flavovelata is endemic to north-eastern Mexico, with a restricted distribution due to the spatial arrangement of its major habitat: wetlands. Given the lack of information regarding this vulnerable and endemic landbird, here we describe and analyse the sites where we recorded it in Northern Veracruz, as well as its population density, and natural history information. Our results show that the average density of this endemic yellowthroat is 1.006 ind/ha, with more individuals recorded in Tecolutla when compared to Tuxpan. We found a strong association between the Altamira Yellowthroat and southern cat-tail Typha domingensis, although we found scenarios under which the presence of the cat-tail was not a determinant of Altamira Yellowthroat presence. In light of the strong anthropogenic pressures on wetlands in the region, the Altamira Yellowthroat has become highly vulnerable. Thus, if we aim to preserve this endemic species, together with other wetland-dependent species, it is crucial to moderate –and even stop– human pressures on these ecosystems and mitigate past damages.
To determine whether (-)-epicatechin (Epi) could decrease visceral adipose tissue and improve the metabolic profile of male offspring rats, after maternal obesity was induced by a high-fat diet (HFD).
Maternal obesity in albino Wistar rats was induced with a HFD, whereas male offspring were fed with chow diet throughout the study. Eight male offspring per group, from different litters, were randomly assigned to the experimental or to the control groups. In the experimental group, Epi was administered at a dose of 1 mg/kg of body weight to the male offspring twice daily for two weeks, beginning at postnatal day (PND).
Weight of visceral adipose tissue, adipocyte size, and several metabolic parameters.
Epi administration in the male offspring induced a significant decrease in the amount of visceral fat (11.61 g less, P < 0.05) and in the size of adipose cells (28% smaller, P < 0.01). Besides, Epi was able to decrease insulin, leptin, and Homeostasis Model Assessment -Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) (P < 0.05), as well as triglycerides, when the experimental group was compared to the untreated male offspring of obese rats (P < 0.01).
Epi administration can reverse the negative effects that maternal obesity has on the male offspring. This could be because Epi reduces the amount of visceral fat and improves metabolic profile.
Comparative studies can reveal much about how law is formed out of social reality and political power by exploring these interactions in different national contexts. In this work Mauricio García-Villegas compares ideas about law and society in France and the United States, demonstrating different approaches to sociopolitical legal studies. Using the interdisciplinary tools of the sociology of law, critical legal theory, and sociolegal studies, García-Villegas builds up an insightful overview of what constitutes law and society theory and practice in France and the United States. He brings together diverse perspectives and practices that generally do not communicate well with one another, as is often the case between the critical theory of law of jurists and the legal sociology of sociologists. This study will allow readers to understand the sociology of law in a comparative perspective and sets out a new research agenda for the field of sociopolitical legal studies.
The small red brocket deer Mazama bororo is endemic to the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, a biome that has been greatly fragmented and altered by human activities. This elusive species is morphologically similar to the red brocket deer Mazama americana and the Brazilian dwarf brocket deer Mazama nana, and genetic typing is necessary for reliable identification. To determine the geographical range of M. bororo more accurately, we conducted non-invasive genetic sampling using scat detection dogs trained to locate deer faeces. We surveyed 46 protected areas located within the species’ potential distribution and collected a total of 555 scat samples in 30 of the protected areas. Using a polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism approach, we genotyped 497 scat samples (89%) and detected M. bororo in seven localities in three Brazilian states. The results support a range extension of the small red brocket deer to latitudes 23 and 28°S and longitudes 47 and 49°W. We show that the species’ distribution is associated with 37,517 km2 of the Ombrophilous Dense Forest in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, and this conclusion is supported by species distribution modelling. The small red brocket deer is the largest endemic species in Brazil and may have the smallest geographical distribution of any Neotropical deer species. This species occupies fragmented landscapes and is threatened by human encroachment, poaching, and predation by dogs, and based on our findings we recommend policy intervention for conservation planning of the Ombrophilous Dense Forest.
Molecular variability of vanilla (Vanilla planifolia) and three wild species was assessed to explore the possible sources of variation that can be used for crop improvement. A total of 154 ISSR loci were analysed by the UPGMA, assignment tests of individuals (STRUCTURE) and indices of genetic diversity. The assignment tests were done at two levels: first considering the four species and then only the accessions of V. planifolia. The molecular analysis indicated 99.3% polymorphism among all species and 70.45% within V. planifolia. The UPGMA showed the separation of these four species into three groups and grouped V. planifolia accessions into three subgroups. The more genetically differentiated accessions were of the Rayada morphotype and a wild accession was from Oaxaca, followed by a wild accession from Quintana Roo; all the commercial accessions of V. planifolia (Mansa morphotype) were grouped together. The STRUCTURE analysis differentiated between V. planifolia and the three wild species, and among the accessions of the Mansa and Rayada morphotypes and the wild accessions. The STRUCTURE analysis also indicated the presence of mixed individuals. These results are of great importance since the accessions of V. planifolia that are genetically more differentiated are the most threatened due to the scarcity of these individuals, the destruction of habitat and replacement by the commercial morphotype. These individuals should be salvaged and used to expand the genetic background of vanilla.