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This pilot study was designed to assess the feasibility of implementing a mindfulness intervention in the prevention of falls. We employed a quasi-experimental design consisting of 22 participants from two retirement homes in Ontario partaking in the regional falls prevention class. Participants were assigned to either an eight-week intervention, comprising mindfulness exercises incorporated into the standard falls prevention class, or to the standard falls prevention class. Participants were assessed using the Tinetti Balance and Gait Scale and the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test. The mindfulness intervention showed no significant effect on TUG or balance scores; however, there was a significant effect on assessments of gait. Given the ease of implementation of mindfulness-based interventions, further research may be warranted in mindfulness as a potential modality for falls prevention.
We show that for any n divisible by 3, almost all order-n Steiner triple systems admit a decomposition of almost all their triples into disjoint perfect matchings (that is, almost all Steiner triple systems are almost resolvable).
We give several results showing that different discrete structures typically gain certain spanning substructures (in particular, Hamilton cycles) after a modest random perturbation. First, we prove that adding linearly many random edges to a dense k-uniform hypergraph ensures the (asymptotically almost sure) existence of a perfect matching or a loose Hamilton cycle. The proof involves an interesting application of Szemerédi's Regularity Lemma, which might be independently useful. We next prove that digraphs with certain strong expansion properties are pancyclic, and use this to show that adding a linear number of random edges typically makes a dense digraph pancyclic. Finally, we prove that perturbing a certain (minimum-degree-dependent) number of random edges in a tournament typically ensures the existence of multiple edge-disjoint Hamilton cycles. All our results are tight.
Nutrigenomics is the study of how constituents of the diet interact with genes, and their products, to alter phenotype and, conversely, how genes and their products metabolise these constituents into nutrients, antinutrients, and bioactive compounds. Results from molecular and genetic epidemiological studies indicate that dietary unbalance can alter gene–nutrient interactions in ways that increase the risk of developing chronic disease. The interplay of human genetic variation and environmental factors will make identifying causative genes and nutrients a formidable, but not intractable, challenge. We provide specific recommendations for how to best meet this challenge and discuss the need for new methodologies and the use of comprehensive analyses of nutrient–genotype interactions involving large and diverse populations. The objective of the present paper is to stimulate discourse and collaboration among nutrigenomic researchers and stakeholders, a process that will lead to an increase in global health and wellness by reducing health disparities in developed and developing countries.
The globally significant dugong population of Torres Strait supports an important indigenous fishery for meat and oil. The fishery is protected by the Torres Strait Treaty between Australia and Papua New Guinea. A time series of aerial survey estimates from 1987–2001 confirms that there is considerable temporal variability in the size of the dugong population in the region and adds to a growing body of evidence from other aerial surveys and satellite tracking that dugongs undertake large-scale movements associated with temporal and spatial changes in the distribution of their seagrass food. The magnitude of these effects on both the size of the population and the catch cannot be disaggregated from the effects of population depletion from over-harvesting. The Potential Biological Removal method was used in conjunction with the aerial survey data to estimate sustainable anthropogenic mortality from all causes for a range of empirically-derived estimates of dugong life-history parameters. These estimates of a sustainable harvest are so far below the current harvest that it must be unsustainable. Governments should heed the Islanders' requests for assistance in implementing co-management of the fishery as a matter of urgency.
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