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The Minnesota Center for Twin and Family Research (MCTFR) comprises multiple longitudinal, community-representative investigations of twin and adoptive families that focus on psychological adjustment, personality, cognitive ability and brain function, with a special emphasis on substance use and related psychopathology. The MCTFR includes the Minnesota Twin Registry (MTR), a cohort of twins who have completed assessments in middle and older adulthood; the Minnesota Twin Family Study (MTFS) of twins assessed from childhood and adolescence into middle adulthood; the Enrichment Study (ES) of twins oversampled for high risk for substance-use disorders assessed from childhood into young adulthood; the Adolescent Brain (AdBrain) study, a neuroimaging study of adolescent twins; and the Siblings Interaction and Behavior Study (SIBS), a study of adoptive and nonadoptive families assessed from adolescence into young adulthood. Here we provide a brief overview of key features of these established studies and describe new MCTFR investigations that follow up and expand upon existing studies or recruit and assess new samples, including the MTR Study of Relationships, Personality, and Health (MTR-RPH); the Colorado-Minnesota (COMN) Marijuana Study; the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study; the Colorado Online Twins (CoTwins) study and the Children of Twins (CoT) study.
Breakthrough Listen is a 10-yr initiative to search for signatures of technologies created by extraterrestrial civilisations at radio and optical wavelengths. Here, we detail the digital data recording system deployed for Breakthrough Listen observations at the 64-m aperture CSIRO Parkes Telescope in New South Wales, Australia. The recording system currently implements two modes: a dual-polarisation, 1.125-GHz bandwidth mode for single-beam observations, and a 26-input, 308-MHz bandwidth mode for the 21-cm multibeam receiver. The system is also designed to support a 3-GHz single-beam mode for the forthcoming Parkes ultra-wideband feed. In this paper, we present details of the system architecture, provide an overview of hardware and software, and present initial performance results.
The deep subsurface of other planetary bodies is of special interest for robotic and human exploration. The subsurface provides access to planetary interior processes, thus yielding insights into planetary formation and evolution. On Mars, the subsurface might harbour the most habitable conditions. In the context of human exploration, the subsurface can provide refugia for habitation from extreme surface conditions. We describe the fifth Mine Analogue Research (MINAR 5) programme at 1 km depth in the Boulby Mine, UK in collaboration with Spaceward Bound NASA and the Kalam Centre, India, to test instruments and methods for the robotic and human exploration of deep environments on the Moon and Mars. The geological context in Permian evaporites provides an analogue to evaporitic materials on other planetary bodies such as Mars. A wide range of sample acquisition instruments (NASA drills, Small Planetary Impulse Tool (SPLIT) robotic hammer, universal sampling bags), analytical instruments (Raman spectroscopy, Close-Up Imager, Minion DNA sequencing technology, methane stable isotope analysis, biomolecule and metabolic life detection instruments) and environmental monitoring equipment (passive air particle sampler, particle detectors and environmental monitoring equipment) was deployed in an integrated campaign. Investigations included studying the geochemical signatures of chloride and sulphate evaporitic minerals, testing methods for life detection and planetary protection around human-tended operations, and investigations on the radiation environment of the deep subsurface. The MINAR analogue activity occurs in an active mine, showing how the development of space exploration technology can be used to contribute to addressing immediate Earth-based challenges. During the campaign, in collaboration with European Space Agency (ESA), MINAR was used for astronaut familiarization with future exploration tools and techniques. The campaign was used to develop primary and secondary school and primary to secondary transition curriculum materials on-site during the campaign which was focused on a classroom extra vehicular activity simulation.
The present study examined the relationship between dyadic interaction patterns and implicit theories of relationships (ITRs; deeply held beliefs about the nature of relationships) using a sample of N = 104 couples. We hypothesised that destiny beliefs would predict greater avoidance in conflict interactions, while growth beliefs would predict more constructive communication. Surprisingly, the results of the current study challenge the existing literature by indicating that neither destiny nor growth beliefs predict constructive communication or mutual avoidance for the couple. Further, while destiny beliefs were related to increased withdrawal in a demand-withdraw pattern, growth beliefs related to both demand and withdraw in a demand-withdraw pattern. These findings suggest that assessing the relationship between ITRs and communication patterns at the couple level introduces complexity that is underexplored in the current literature on implicit theories of relationships.
This study examined the qualitative differences between the types of strengths identified by satisfied versus distressed couples seeking a Marriage Checkup. We hypothesised that distressed couples would nominate less intimate strengths, while satisfied couples would nominate more intimate strengths. We found that distressed partners were significantly more likely to nominate items from a Parallel Support category, whereas satisfied women, but not men, were significantly more likely to nominate items from an Intimate/Affectionate category. These findings suggest that an indicator of developing couple distress is the point where couples begin to focus their attention on less emotionally vulnerable relationship aspects.
A Health Technology Assessment (HTA) systematic review was undertaken in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) of treat-to-target (TTT) studies (n = 16) in which studies were grouped according to: TTT versus usual care, trials comparing different targets, or trials comparing different treatment protocols. To our knowledge, this was the first RA TTT review where studies were grouped in this way. We wanted to compare if our approach had been adopted in reviews of hypertension, hyperlipidemia or diabetes.
We searched MEDLINE for systematic reviews (SRs) of TTT studies in hypertension, hyperlipidaemia or diabetes.
Eleven SRs were included; eight were in diabetes, and four were in hypertension, while none were in hyperlipidaemia. The diabetes SRs evaluated different insulin regimens (n = 3), non-insulin medications (n = 1), any antidiabetic treatment (n = 2), metformin monotherapy versus combination therapy (n = 1), and tight versus conventional glucose control (n = 1). The metformin review grouped studies by outcome whereas all other diabetes SRs grouped studies by treatment. Two hypertension SRs evaluated the effects of any treatment on two blood pressure targets, whereas one evaluated two different treatment regimen effects on the same blood pressure target. No SR in hypertension or diabetes included a mix of TTT versus usual care, and/or same treatment protocol different targets, and/or different treatment protocols same target study designs.
In RA TTT does not refer to a single concept but a range of different approaches to the treatment of patients and the evidence reflects this. Whilst our approach to grouping RA TTT studies in a review was novel, this made it complex for us to synthesize evidence and draw general conclusions. We did not identify any TTT reviews in hypertension or diabetes including a mix of the TTT approaches we identified in RA. At present, a comparison of the strengths and limitations of our TTT review study grouping with reviews of hypertension, hyperlipidemia or diabetes cannot be made.
This work provides new insights into human responses to and perceptions of sea-level rise at a time when the landscapes of north-west Europe were radically changing. These issues are investigated through a case study focused on the Channel Islands. We report on the excavation of two sites, Canal du Squez in Jersey and Lihou (GU582) in Guernsey, and the study of museum collections across the Channel Islands. We argue that people were drawn to this area as a result of the dynamic environmental processes occurring and the opportunities these created. The evidence suggests that the area was a particular focus during the Middle Mesolithic, when Guernsey and Alderney were already islands and while Jersey was a peninsula of northern France. Insularisation does not appear to have created a barrier to occupation during either the Middle or Final Mesolithic, indicating the appearance of lifeways increasingly focused on maritime voyaging and marine resources from the second half of the 9th millennium BC onwards.
The benefits of engagement with social activities on health and wellbeing are widely reported by gerontologists. Less is known, however, about what drives withdrawal from and re-engagement with social activities in later life. This is an important area of research which has direct implications for public policies that aim to ensure equitable outcomes among older adults. Much of the existing literature supports continuity theory which assumes people will not alter their level of social engagement as they age or after life-changing events. This paper uses data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing over an eight-year period (2002–2010) to determine the effect of short-term changes in marital, employment and health status over an initial four-year period on the dynamics of social detachment over the following four years. We control for underlying socio-economic disadvantages built up during the lifecourse and find that these effects, including poor education, wealth and health, are the most important determinants of persistent detachment from social activities as well as movement into and out of social detachment. The effects are consistent in men and women. The effects of short-term changes in marital and employment status have little effect on social detachment. Recent deterioration in health, however, predicted movement into social detachment, which implies the relationship between health and social detachment is reciprocal.
This study employed a novel methodological design to explore how couples transition out of a disagreement that they do not have time to resolve. Thirty college-aged dating couples participated in a 20-minute interaction with their partner where they were required to transition from a conflict conversation to the story of how they met, in a time-limited paradigm. Independent coders coded transition styles and couples completed self-report measures of relationship satisfaction pre, post, and at 6-month follow-up. We identified four transition styles: Mutual Avoidant, Mutual Collaborative, Abrupt/Controlling, and Resign/Withdraw. Couples with a Resign/Withdraw style deteriorated over time compared to couples with the other three styles. Further, couples also varied in terms of transition qualities, including how easily they disengaged and how deeply meaningful the conversation was. Ease of transition was associated with increases in relationship satisfaction at 6 months, whereas depth was associated with decreases in relationship satisfaction both immediately after the interaction and at 6 months. Implications are discussed.
We report on two areas in which UK law and ethics seem out of step with each
other. 2013 saw the passing of the Human Transplantation (Wales) Bill, which
will introduce an opt-out system of organ donation in Wales from 2015. In the
first section, we discuss the convoluted evolution of the Bill and some
potential problems that we consider may prevent it from achieving its intended
goal of increasing the number of organs transplanted. The prospect of being able
to enhance human cognition through cognitive-enhancing drugs (“smart
drugs”) also presents a nexus of questions associated with future
ambitions, hopes, and concerns as a society. How these drugs might affect the
future of work and employment is beginning to generate wide public engagement in
the UK and forms the focus of the second section.
This volume publishes a selection of the papers first presented during the Society for Post-Medieval Archaeology's conference Engaging the Recent Past in 2010. This introductory paper seeks to situate the other contributions, placing them in the context of wider processes including the rise of Community Archaeology and the development of an explicit political consciousness in archaeology. Concepts of multivocality and memory are discussed, as are the practices of public participation. The paper argues that a more critical stance needs to be taken towards public engagement in archaeology, and this is discussed in relation to concepts of power and social learning. The paper advocates a move beyond limited participation (confined to particular activities, such as participatory site identification and recording, and to the context of particular projects) and it advocates a move towards participatory governance. Here, the archaeological professional is repositioned as a collaborator engaging with others, including relevant public constituencies and the relevant authorities, in the social process of creating knowledge about the past and defining how historic environments and relationships will be protected, managed or transformed in the future.
This volume arises from the Society for Post-Medieval Archaeology conference Engaging the Recent Past: Public, Political Post-Medieval Archaeology (Glasgow, September 2010). The focus of the conference was the contemporary context of post-medieval archaeology: the values, politics and ethics associated with the recent past, and the practices through which we engage with and construct that past. Contributors to the conference considered these issues in relation to the post-medieval and contemporary archaeologies of the U.K., Ireland and a number of other countries, and they promoted positions founded in a variety of philosophical, political and practice traditions.
This paper will demonstrate, through recent fieldwork and political engagements in Bristol, UK, the potential for a new kind of political archaeology, not based around supporting political parties or facilitating community engagement as ends in themselves, but around creating new kinds of knowledge that can be used to influence politics and politicians at the highest levels.
INTRODUCTION: BIG P, SMALL p
The phrase ‘archaeology is a political act’ is oft repeated, but as with any such definitive phrase when used in academia each word of it has multiple meanings. For instance ‘is’. Well, it is not always. Archaeology can be a political act and archaeology sometimes is a political act, but this is not a universal truth. Likewise, the word archaeology can be taken different ways itself. There is academic archaeology, private sector archaeology, public archaeology, uses of archaeology in the heritage industry and so on, all intrinsically connected, but each with nuances different enough to render universality meaningless.
In this paper, I wish to put forward the possibility that contemporary forms of archaeological thought and investigation can play a role in redefining the ways in which politicians engage with ordinary people and everyday situations. Rather than limiting themselves to facilitating community engagement or lobbying politicians in relation to heritage legislation, I will suggest that archaeologists can move towards using their unique perspectives on contemporary and historic environments to change the very way in which the connection between archaeology and politics is conceived, using archaeological investigation to understand the nature of contemporary politics and feeding this back into the wider system of policy making instead of merely working within the confines of existing heritage legislation.
Heritage, memory, community archaeology and the politics of the past form the main strands running through the papers in this volume. The authors tackle these subjects from a range of different philosophical perspectives, with many drawing on the experience of recent community, commercial and other projects. Throughout, there is a strong emphasis on both the philosophy of engagement and with its enactment in specific contexts; the essays deal with an interest in the meaning, value and contested nature of the recent past and in the theory and practice of archaeological engagements with that past.
Chris Dalglish is a lecturer in archaeology at the University of Glasgow. Contributors: Julia Beaumont, David Bowsher, Terry Brown, Jo Buckberry, Chris Dalglish, James Dixon, Audrey Horning, Robert Isherwood, Robert C Janaway, Melanie Johnson, Siân Jones, Catriona Mackie, Janet Montgomery, Harold Mytum, Michael Nevell, Natasha Powers, Biddy Simpson, Matt Town, Andrew Wilson