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This article reanalyzes petroglyphs from the Red Bird River Shelter (15CY52), a small sandstone shelter in Kentucky. In 2009–2013, it was claimed that some of the carvings at the site represented the earliest known examples of Cherokee Syllabary writing, dating to the first two decades of the nineteenth century. It was also suggested that Sequoyah, the Cherokee artist and intellectual who invented the Cherokee Syllabary in the early nineteenth century, had made these petroglyph versions during a visit to see his white paternal family living in Kentucky. Our reanalysis categorically contests this interpretation. We do not see Cherokee Syllabary writing at Red Bird River Shelter. We do not believe that historical evidence supports the notion that Sequoyah had white relatives in Kentucky whom he visited there at the time required for him to have authored those petroglyphs. We also believe that this account misrepresents Sequoyah's Cherokee identity by tying him to white relatives for whom there is no historical warrant. We argue that the Red Bird River Shelter is a significant precontact petroglyph site with several panels of line-and-groove petroglyphs overlain by numerous examples of modern graffiti, but there is no Sequoyan Syllabary inscription there.
Copper-alumina and copper-silica aerogels formed by impregnation of a copper(II) salt into an alumina or silica wet gel before supercritical extraction have been found to contain copper in multiple oxidation states: Cu0, Cu+1 and Cu+2. These aerogels are effective at catalyzing the reduction of NO and the oxidation of HCs and CO under conditions similar to those found in automotive three way catalysts. In this work we have developed a preparation method incorporating Cu0, Cu+1 and Cu+2 nanoparticles directly into silica aerogels. Nanoparticles in the form of (a) Cu0 nanorods (100 nm diameter, 10-20 μm length); (b) Cu+1 nanoparticles (350 nm diameter); and (c) Cu+2 nanoparticles (25-55 nm diameter) were added (0.5-15% by weight) to separate precursor mixtures consisting of tetramethyl orthosilicate, methanol, water and ammonia. These precursor mixtures were then processed using a rapid supercritical extraction (RSCE) method to form aerogels. The resulting aerogels show evidence of nanoparticles dispersed throughout the silica aerogel structure. Addition of Cu+1 and Cu+2 nanoparticles decreases the surface area of the aerogels significantly. X-Ray diffraction shows that regardless of initial oxidation state of the nanoparticles, crystalline Cu0 is detected after RSCE processing to 290 °C. Following heat treatment at 700 °C, crystalline Cu+2 is detected. The copper containing silica aerogels are found to be catalytically active with light-off temperatures (50% conversion) for NO and CO at 400 °C in three-way catalytic applications.
Studies on gaze allocation during sentence production have recently begun to implement cross-linguistic analyses in the investigation of visual and linguistic processing. The underlying assumption is that the aspects of a scene that attract attention prior to articulation are, in part, linked to the specific linguistic system and means used for expression. The present study concerns naturalistic, dynamic scenes (video clips) showing causative events (agent acting on an object) and exploits grammatical differences in the domain of verbal aspect, and the way in which the status of an event (a specific vs. habitual instance of an event) is encoded in English and German. Fixations in agent and action areas of interest were timelocked to utterance onset, and we focused on the pre-articulatory time span to shed light on sentence planning processes, involving message generation and scene conceptualization. Findings are threefold: (i) English speakers mark the status of an event as specific in relation to the action, with progressive aspect marking on the verb in each utterance. German speakers do so by elaborating specific characteristics of the agent; (ii) participants display significantly different gaze allocation patterns to agent and action regions although the sentences produced in both languages follow the same subject−verb word order; and (iii) the analysis of gaze patterns during sentence production given dynamic scenes provide complementary results from a more naturalistic paradigm, to those obtained in studies with still images.
Rates of self-harm are high and have recently increased. This trend and the repetitive nature of self-harm pose a significant challenge to mental health services.
To determine the efficacy of a structured group problem-solving skills training (PST) programme as an intervention approach for self-harm in addition to treatment as usual (TAU) as offered by mental health services.
A total of 433 participants (aged 18–64 years) were randomly assigned to TAU plus PST or TAU alone. Assessments were carried out at baseline and at 6-week and 6-month follow-up and repeated hospital-treated self-harm was ascertained at 12-month follow-up.
The treatment groups did not differ in rates of repeated self-harm at 6-week, 6-month and 12-month follow-up. Both treatment groups showed significant improvements in psychological and social functioning at follow-up. Only one measure (needing and receiving practical help from those closest to them) showed a positive treatment effect at 6-week (P = 0.004) and 6-month (P = 0.01) follow-up. Repetition was not associated with waiting time in the PST group.
This brief intervention for self-harm is no more effective than treatment as usual. Further work is required to establish whether a modified, more intensive programme delivered sooner after the index episode would be effective.
Using eye-tracking as a window on cognitive processing, this study investigates language effects on attention to motion events in a non-verbal task. We compare gaze allocation patterns by native speakers of German and Modern Standard Arabic (MSA), two languages that differ with regard to the grammaticalization of temporal concepts. Findings of the non-verbal task, in which speakers watch dynamic event scenes while performing an auditory distracter task, are compared to gaze allocation patterns which were obtained in an event description task, using the same stimuli. We investigate whether differences in the grammatical aspectual systems of German and MSA affect the extent to which endpoints of motion events are linguistically encoded and visually processed in the two tasks. In the linguistic task, we find clear language differences in endpoint encoding and in the eye-tracking data (attention to event endpoints) as well: German speakers attend to and linguistically encode endpoints more frequently than speakers of MSA. The fixation data in the non-verbal task show similar language effects, providing relevant insights with regard to the language-and-thought debate. The present study is one of the few studies that focus explicitly on language effects related to grammatical concepts, as opposed to lexical concepts.
This paper investigates the use of aspectual constructions in Dutch, Norwegian, and German, languages in which aspect marking that presents events explicitly as ongoing, is optional. Data were elicited under similar conditions with native speakers in the three countries. We show that while German speakers make insignificant use of aspectual constructions, usage patterns in Norwegian and Dutch present an interesting case of overlap, as well as differences, with respect to a set of factors that attract or constrain the use of different constructions. The results indicate that aspect marking is grammaticalizing in Dutch, but there are no clear signs of a similar process in Norwegian.*
We have formed suspended bridges of carbon nanotubes between microcantilevers using electron beam dissociation of metal-organic vapours. By electron beam exposure of a surface in the presence of gold-carbon molecules emitted inside an environmental scanning electron microscope, we are able to form tips and other freestanding nanostructures of high metallic content. Suspended bridges made entirely of this material exhibit resistances less than 50 times that of pure gold, and consist of dense metallic cores surrounded by a crust of nanoparticles. We used standard microfabrication techniques to produce silicon chips with multiple microcantilevers extending over the edge. Individual multiwalled carbon nanotubes grown catalyticcally by chemical vapour deposition, were positioned across two cantilevers using in-situ nanomanipulation tools. Drawing a cross-shaped gold-carbon bond on each end of the carbon nanotube consistently resulted in electrical contact with resistances in the range 1-90 Ω and linear current-voltage characteristics. We found that soldering bonds having a line width down to 10-15 nm form connections and last for days in ambient conditions.
Even though viability for printed bacteria has been demonstrated, the effect of thermal ink-jet printing on cellular ultrastructures is unknown. Retention of viability is useful when colony growth is desired. However, when bacteria are isolated from a human infection they often exhibit characteristics that can be lost when grown in standard laboratory cultures. Ideally, individual bacteria from an infection could be printed and studied without extensive culturing or processing.
We have investigated the gram-positive organism Staphylococcus aureus and the extracellular polymeric ultrastructure that encapsulates the bacterial cell. The capsule is composed of cell-wall associated polysaccharides. Our goal was to use ink-jet printing to spatially control the placement of S. aureus, without affecting the extracellular ultrastructure. Observation by scanning electron microscopy comparing the integrity and uniformity of encapsulated S. aureus before and after thermal ink-jet printing suggests that the capsule is disrupted, possibly completely removed, during printing.
One of the central questions in cognitive linguistics concerns human cognition and the way dynamic situations are structured for expression. When language is used to convey information on experience, it is far from being a mirror of what was actually perceived. Representations are based on information stored in memory and retrieved when construing a reportable event in the language used. Taking the linguistic output as a point of reference, the process is selective, perspective-driven and interpretative. Crosslinguistic studies of event representation show that the perspectives chosen can differ, depending on the expressive means available to the speaker, and the term ‘event representation’ is used in the following to relate to event construal at this level. Many languages require speakers to direct attention to temporal contours of events, for example, as in aspect-marking languages such as Modern Standard Arabic, where events are viewed and encoded as to whether they are completed, ongoing, or relate to a specific phase (inceptive, terminative, etc.). When talking about events, speakers may also have to accommodate relational systems that include reference to the time of speech, since formal means of this kind allow us to say whether an event occurred in the near or distant past, for example, or just now. An assertion such as the lights went out when the dog barked is grounded in context, in temporal terms, since the time for which the assertion holds has been specified as preceding the time of utterance.
Discovering a theory of change for health promotion in small- and medium-sized enterprises highlights important lessons about how successful workplace health interventions work and the conditions conducive to positive outcomes for ‘hard to reach groups’. In the evaluation of targeted health promotion initiatives carried out by the Workwell project in Sandwell, a theory of change has emerged that indicates the need for a sensitive understanding of the contexts of interventions and the importance of developing mechanisms appropriate to local conditions and stakeholder expectations.
The timed ‘Up & Go’ test (TUG) is a test of basic or functional mobility in adults which has rarely been used in children. Functional mobility was defined for this study as an individual's ability to manoeuvre his or her body capably and independently to accomplish everyday tasks. Reliability and validity of TUG scores were examined in 176 children without physical disabilities (94 males, 82 females; mean age 5y 9mo [SD 1y 8mo]; range 3 to 9y) and in 41 young people with physical disabilities due to cerebral palsy or spina bifida (20 males, 21 females; mean age 8y 11mo [SD 4y 3mo], range 3 to 19y). Mean TUG score for children without physical disability was 5.9s (SD 1.3). Reliability of the TUG test was high, with intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) of 0.89 within session, and 0.83 for test–retest reliability. Mean score of the group aged 3 to 5 years was significantly higher (6.7s SD 1.2) than that of the older group (5.1s, SD 0.8; p=0.001). Scores in the younger group reduced significantly over a 5-month follow-up period (p=0.001), indicating that the TUG was responsive to change. Within-session reliability of the TUG in young people with disabilities was very high (ICC=0.99). There were significant differences in TUG scores between children classified at levels I, II, and III of the Gross Motor Function Classification System (p=0.001). TUG scores showed a moderate negative correlation with scores on the Standing and Walking dimensions of the Gross Motor Function Measure (n=22, rho=–0.52, p=0.012). There was no significant difference in TUG scores between typically developing male and female children. The TUG can be used reliably in children as young as 3 years using the protocol described in this paper. It is a meaningful, quick, and practical objective measure of functional mobility. With further investigation, the TUG is potentially useful as a screening test, an outcome measure in intervention studies for young people with disabilities, a measure of disability, and as a measure of change in functional mobility over time.
As is often the case with research projects, what sparked our interest in the subject of this chapter – unconscious plagiarism – was a personal experience described to us by colleagues, which appears to be quite common. The experience is this: our colleagues' students believe that their supervisors have stolen their research ideas, while our colleagues believe that the idea was originally theirs, and can provide strong supporting evidence for their beliefs. The prime example we were made aware of involved a postgraduate student who accused his supervisor of having published a paper which appropriated the entire research plan for his Ph.D. The supervisor was justly outraged and amazed at this accusation. She attributed this to unconscious plagiarism of an idea that she first suggested to the student during an initial meeting at which she offered a number of suggestions to assist the student in implementing a research idea. The student was equally convinced that the paradigm he eventually adopted arose from his own intensive reading of the literature and problem-solving skills. The student conceded that at an initial meeting a number of ideas were bandied back and forth; however, he also claimed to remember the process by which he discovered how to apply a particular psychological paradigm to answer a research question in a novel way. This occurred at a date well after the initial discussion with the supervisor, and the novelty of the approach particularly impressed itself on the student's mind.
The present cross-linguistic study deals with the relevance of principles of information
organization in adult second language acquisition. It looks at typological features of information
structure that allow speakers to organize and shape the flow of information when carrying out
complex tasks, such as giving a description, and pinpoints factors that lead to the selection of
linguistic form. At the focus of our attention are means used in reference introduction, such as
existential and locational constructions, the morphosyntactic forms of expressions applied in
reference maintenance, and word order. The cross-linguistic comparison shows that the options
found in the expression of these functions in German, English, and Romance languages (French,
Italian, and Spanish) follow distinct patterns in that the linguistic means used reflect unifying
principles of a typological nature. These principles are perspective driven and are associated with
patterns of grammaticization. Structures in language that reflect core principles in information
organization may be difficult to acquire because learners have to recognize clusters of
form-function relations that range over different domains. The nature of the analyses required is
described for learners of German with English and Spanish as their source languages. The
interlanguages (ILs) of these speakers show a high degree of compatibility with German in
formal syntactic terms and are near native in many respects, but the levels at which the IL and
target language diverge can be linked to fundamental principles of organization underlying
information structure. Although the stage of acquisition is advanced, the languages still retain
core principles in information structure typical of those found for English and Romance
Career development is a lifelong process influenced by a range of factors including gender. The process of career development is accounted for in several ways including models which describe stages through which individuals pass. Career education programs in schools attend to the career development of young people in secondary schools more often than in primary schools. The present study examined the occupational aspirations of Year 6 children in terms of developmental stages and the influence of gender. Data were collected before and after the children participated in a short term career education program. Comparisons were made of the pre-and post-test data.