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We present a detailed overview of the cosmological surveys that we aim to carry out with Phase 1 of the Square Kilometre Array (SKA1) and the science that they will enable. We highlight three main surveys: a medium-deep continuum weak lensing and low-redshift spectroscopic HI galaxy survey over 5 000 deg2; a wide and deep continuum galaxy and HI intensity mapping (IM) survey over 20 000 deg2 from
$z = 0.35$
to 3; and a deep, high-redshift HI IM survey over 100 deg2 from
$z = 3$
to 6. Taken together, these surveys will achieve an array of important scientific goals: measuring the equation of state of dark energy out to
$z \sim 3$
with percent-level precision measurements of the cosmic expansion rate; constraining possible deviations from General Relativity on cosmological scales by measuring the growth rate of structure through multiple independent methods; mapping the structure of the Universe on the largest accessible scales, thus constraining fundamental properties such as isotropy, homogeneity, and non-Gaussianity; and measuring the HI density and bias out to
$z = 6$
. These surveys will also provide highly complementary clustering and weak lensing measurements that have independent systematic uncertainties to those of optical and near-infrared (NIR) surveys like Euclid, LSST, and WFIRST leading to a multitude of synergies that can improve constraints significantly beyond what optical or radio surveys can achieve on their own. This document, the 2018 Red Book, provides reference technical specifications, cosmological parameter forecasts, and an overview of relevant systematic effects for the three key surveys and will be regularly updated by the Cosmology Science Working Group in the run up to start of operations and the Key Science Programme of SKA1.
Item 9 of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) queries about thoughts of death and self-harm, but not suicidality. Although it is sometimes used to assess suicide risk, most positive responses are not associated with suicidality. The PHQ-8, which omits Item 9, is thus increasingly used in research. We assessed equivalency of total score correlations and the diagnostic accuracy to detect major depression of the PHQ-8 and PHQ-9.
We conducted an individual patient data meta-analysis. We fit bivariate random-effects models to assess diagnostic accuracy.
16 742 participants (2097 major depression cases) from 54 studies were included. The correlation between PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 scores was 0.996 (95% confidence interval 0.996 to 0.996). The standard cutoff score of 10 for the PHQ-9 maximized sensitivity + specificity for the PHQ-8 among studies that used a semi-structured diagnostic interview reference standard (N = 27). At cutoff 10, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive by 0.02 (−0.06 to 0.00) and more specific by 0.01 (0.00 to 0.01) among those studies (N = 27), with similar results for studies that used other types of interviews (N = 27). For all 54 primary studies combined, across all cutoffs, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive than the PHQ-9 by 0.00 to 0.05 (0.03 at cutoff 10), and specificity was within 0.01 for all cutoffs (0.00 to 0.01).
PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 total scores were similar. Sensitivity may be minimally reduced with the PHQ-8, but specificity is similar.
In this article, an extremely wideband, isolation-enhanced, low-profile “Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output” (MIMO) antenna along with dual-band-notched features has been investigated. The antenna proposed herein, possesses two mutually orthogonal staircase-etched radiators for achieving a wide bandwidth. The radiating elements are placed mutually perpendicular in order to achieve polarization diversity and high isolation, i.e. for minimization of mutual coupling effect between adjacent radiating elements. The antenna exhibits an extremely wide frequency bandwidth covering 1.2–19.4 GHz except two frequency band notches centered at 3.5 and 5.5 GHz, respectively, originated due to the incorporation of a “Rectangular Complementary Split Ring Resonator (RCSRR)” structure and by etching dual “L-shaped” slits in the ground plane. The center frequency of the notched bands is adjusted by fine tuning of the dimensions of the incorporated band-notching structures. Isolation level (S21) better than −20 dB has been obtained due to the insertion of a “T-shaped” parasitic element as a decoupling structure. A prototype of the proposed antenna having dimension of 20 mm × 20 mm (0.08 λo × 0.08 λo) is fabricated and the antenna responses have been measured. Obtained results show that the miniaturized MIMO diversity antenna is undoubtedly a capable contender for communications supporting an extremely wide impedance bandwidth along with band-notched features for WLAN and WiMAX.
Objective: This study aimed to systematically review the effects of currently prescribed antiparkinson medication on cognition in patients with mild-to-moderate Parkinson’s disease (PD) who were either cognitively intact or mildly impaired. Methods: English- and French-language studies published between 1969 and 2017 were accessed via MedLine, PsychNET, EMBASE and EBSCO databases. Methodological quality (MQ) was evaluated with the quality assessment instrument of the Cochrane Collaboration Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Review (scores from 0% to 44% indicate very low quality; scores from 45% to 64% indicate low quality; scores from 65% to 84% indicate medium quality; and scores from 85% to 100% indicate high quality). Hedges’ g and Student’s t-test were performed on all cognitive outcome measures reported. Results: In total, 14 studies assessed the cognitive effects of levodopa (L-D), pramipexole (PRX), selegiline (SEL) and rasagiline (RAS) in mild-to-moderate non-demented PD patients. The MQ was overall low, with an average score of 49.1%. Results for L-D showed deleterious effects on a test of cognitive inhibition, as well as benefits on tests of attention/processing speed/working memory, executive functions and episodic memory. Pramipexole was associated with a worsening of episodic memory and impulse control. Results on SEL indicated a deterioration of global cognition over time and of concept formation. Rasagiline had some benefits on working memory and verbal fluency. Conclusion: Antiparkinson medications can have deleterious (L-D; PRX; SEL) and beneficial (L-D; RAS) effects on cognition. However, randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trials with larger sample sizes are required to better elucidate this issue.
We present predictions for the spatial distribution of 21 cm brightness temperature fluctuations from high-dynamic-range simulations for AGN-dominated reionization histories that have been tested against available Lyα and CMB data. We model AGN by extrapolating the observed Mbh–σ relation to high redshifts and assign them ionizing emissivities consistent with recent UV luminosity function measurements. AGN-dominated reionization histories increase the variance of the 21 cm emission by a factor of up to ten compared to similar reionization histories dominated by faint galaxies, to values close to 100 mK2 at scales accessible to experiments (k ≲ 1 cMpc−1h). This is lower than the sensitivity reached by ongoing experiments by only a factor of about two or less. AGN dominated reionization should be easily detectable by LOFAR (and later HERA and SKA1) at their design sensitivity.
Surface exposure dating was applied to erosional shorelines associated with the Angliers lake level that marks an important stage of Lake Ojibway. The distribution of 15 10Be ages from five sites shows a main group (10 samples) of coherent 10Be ages yielding a mean age of 9.9±0.7 ka that assigns the development of this lake level to the early part of the Lake Ojibway history. A smaller group (3 samples) is part of a more scattered distribution of older 10Be ages (with 2 outliers) that points to an inheritance of cosmogenic isotopes from a previous exposure, revealing an apparent mean age of 15.8±0.9 ka that is incompatible with the Ojibway inundation and the regional deglaciation. Our results provide the first direct 10Be chronology on the sequence of lake levels in the Ojibway basin, which includes the lake stage presumably associated with the confluence and subsequent drainage of Lakes Agassiz and Ojibway. This study demonstrates the potential of this approach to date glacial lake shorelines and underlies the importance of obtaining additional chronological constraints on the Agassiz-Ojibway shoreline sequence to confidently assign a particular lake stage and/or lake-level drawdown to a specific time interval of the deglaciation.
Healthcare workers (HCWs), especially those caring for patients with tuberculosis (TB), are at high risk of acquiring that disease. The poor specificity of tuberculin skin testing (TST) prompted us to evaluate the effectiveness of the interferon-γ release assay (IGRA) in comparison with TST in a large prospective, multicenter, 1-year study of HCWs with occupational exposure to TB.
HCWs from high-risk units at 14 university hospitals were invited to participate and underwent both TST and IGRA (first Quantiferon TB Gold-IT®, QFT-G, then T-SPOT.TB® if QFT-G was indeterminate) at baseline and after 1 year. We collected demographic characteristics, country of birth, history of TB, immunosuppression, past exposure to TB, history of BCG vaccination, results of most recent TST, job category, and duration of current function.
Among 807 HCWs enrolled, current or past TST at baseline was positive (≥15 mm) in 282 (34.9%); the IGRA was positive in 113 (14.0%) and indeterminate in 3 (0.4%). After 1 year, 594 HCWs had both an IGRA and TST (or prior TST≥15 mm) at baseline and an IGRA and TST (if indicated). The conversion rate was 2.5% (9 of 367) with TST and 7.6% (45 of 594) with IGRA, with poor agreement between the 2 tests. Using only QFT-G, conversion (9.9%) and reversion (17.8%) rates were higher for baseline QFT-G positive quantitative values <1 IU/mL.
TST and the IGRA yielded discordant results. The value of IGRA in addition to TST remains undetermined; the two should be jointly interpreted in decision-making (clinical trial registration NCT00797836).
Intermittent energy restriction may result in greater improvements in insulin sensitivity and weight control than daily energy restriction (DER). We tested two intermittent energy and carbohydrate restriction (IECR) regimens, including one which allowed ad libitum protein and fat (IECR+PF). Overweight women (n 115) aged 20 and 69 years with a family history of breast cancer were randomised to an overall 25 % energy restriction, either as an IECR (2500–2717 kJ/d, < 40 g carbohydrate/d for 2 d/week) or a 25 % DER (approximately 6000 kJ/d for 7 d/week) or an IECR+PF for a 3-month weight-loss period and 1 month of weight maintenance (IECR or IECR+PF for 1 d/week). Insulin resistance reduced with the IECR diets (mean − 0·34 (95 % CI − 0·66, − 0·02) units) and the IECR+PF diet (mean − 0·38 (95 % CI − 0·75, − 0·01) units). Reductions with the IECR diets were significantly greater compared with the DER diet (mean 0·2 (95 % CI − 0·19, 0·66) μU/unit, P= 0·02). Both IECR groups had greater reductions in body fat compared with the DER group (IECR: mean − 3·7 (95 % CI − 2·5, − 4·9) kg, P= 0·007; IECR+PF: mean − 3·7 (95 % CI − 2·8, − 4·7) kg, P= 0·019; DER: mean − 2·0 (95 % CI − 1·0, 3·0) kg). During the weight maintenance phase, 1 d of IECR or IECR+PF per week maintained the reductions in insulin resistance and weight. In the short term, IECR is superior to DER with respect to improved insulin sensitivity and body fat reduction. Longer-term studies into the safety and effectiveness of IECR diets are warranted.
The intention of this article is to examine the principal features of John Stratford's Winchester episcopal register (Hampshire Record Office, 21M65/A1/5), recently edited for the Surrey Record Society, and hence to consider Stratford's reputation as a diocesan bishop insofar as this is determinable. Frequent absences on royal business, often abroad, are meticulously recorded, necessitating competent ‘central administration’ and a well-qualified and trusted familia. Both of these are in evidence. The impression given is of an efficiently run diocese with a surprising amount of pastoral work, particularly ordinations and visitation of monasteries, being performed by the bishop in person.
Different lifestyle patterns across Europe may influence plasma concentrations of B-vitamins and one-carbon metabolites and their relation to chronic disease. Comparison of published data on one-carbon metabolites in Western European regions is difficult due to differences in sampling procedures and analytical methods between studies. The present study aimed, to compare plasma concentrations of one-carbon metabolites in Western European regions with one laboratory performing all biochemical analyses. We performed the present study in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort among 5446 presumptively healthy individuals. Quantile regression was used to compare sex-specific median concentrations between Northern (Denmark and Sweden), Central (France, Germany, The Netherlands and United Kingdom) and Southern (Greece, Spain and Italy) European regions. The lowest folate concentrations were observed in Northern Europe (men, 10·4 nmol/l; women, 10·7 nmol/l) and highest concentrations in Central Europe. Cobalamin concentrations were slightly higher in Northern Europe (men, 330 pmol/l; women, 352 pmol/l) compared with Central and Southern Europe, but did not show a clear north–south gradient. Vitamin B2 concentrations were highest in Northern Europe (men, 22·2 nmol/l; women, 26·0 nmol/l) and decreased towards Southern Europe (Ptrend< 0·001). Vitamin B6 concentrations were highest in Central Europe in men (77·3 nmol/l) and highest in the North among women (70·4 nmol/l), with decreasing concentrations towards Southern Europe in women (Ptrend< 0·001). In men, concentrations of serine, glycine and sarcosine increased from the north to south. In women, sarcosine increased from Northern to Southern Europe. These findings may provide relevant information for the study of regional differences of chronic disease incidence in association with lifestyle.
A multicenter survey of 11 cancer centers was performed to determine the rate of hospital-onset Clostridium difficile infection (HO-CDI) and surveillance practices. Pooled rates of HO-CDI in patients with cancer were twice the rates reported for all US patients (15.8 vs 7.4 per 10,000 patient-days). Rates were elevated regardless of diagnostic test used.