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Oxidative stress has been suggested to increase after electroconvulsive therapy (ECT); a treatment which continues to be the most effective for severe depression. Oxidative stress could potentially be mechanistically involved in both the therapeutic effects and side-effects of ECT.
We measured sensitive markers of systemic and CNS oxidative stress on DNA and RNA (urinary 8-oxodG/8-oxoGuo, cerebrospinal fluid 8-oxoGuo, and brain oxoguanine glycosylase mRNA expression) in male rats subjected to electroconvulsive stimulations (ECS); an animal model of ECT. Due to previous observations that link hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis activity and age to DNA/RNA damage from oxidation, groups of young and middle-aged male animals were included, and markers of HPA-axis activity were measured.
ECS induced weight loss, corticosterone increases (only in middle-aged animals), and decreased cerebral glucocorticoid receptor mRNA expression, while largely leaving the markers of systemic and CNS DNA/RNA damage from oxidation unaltered.
These results suggest that ECS is not associated with any lasting effects on oxidative stress on nucleic acids neither in young or middle-aged rats.
The goal of this study was to perform in situ electrochemical polymerization of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) in peripheral nerves to create a soft, precisely located injectable conductive polymer electrode for bi-directional communication. Intraneural PEDOT polymerization was performed to target both outer and inner fascicles via custom fabricated 3D printed cuff electrodes and monomer injection strategies using a combination electrode-cannula system. Electrochemistry, histology, and laser light sheet microscopy revealed the presence of PEDOT at specified locations inside of peripheral nerve. This work demonstrates the potential for using in situ PEDOT electrodeposition as an injectable electrode for recording and stimulation of peripheral nerves.
We introduce the asprilo1 framework to facilitate experimental studies of approaches addressing complex dynamic applications. For this purpose, we have chosen the domain of robotic intra-logistics. This domain is not only highly relevant in the context of today's fourth industrial revolution but it moreover combines a multitude of challenging issues within a single uniform framework. This includes multi-agent planning, reasoning about action, change, resources, strategies, etc. In return, asprilo allows users to study alternative solutions as regards effectiveness and scalability. Although asprilo relies on Answer Set Programming and Python, it is readily usable by any system complying with its fact-oriented interface format. This makes it attractive for benchmarking and teaching well beyond logic programming. More precisely, asprilo consists of a versatile benchmark generator, solution checker and visualizer as well as a bunch of reference encodings featuring various ASP techniques. Importantly, the visualizer's animation capabilities are indispensable for complex scenarios like intra-logistics in order to inspect valid as well as invalid solution candidates. Also, it allows for graphically editing benchmark layouts that can be used as a basis for generating benchmark suites.
The ability to interface electronic materials with the peripheral nervous system is required for stimulation and monitoring of neural signals. Thus, the design and engineering of robust neural interfaces that maintain material-tissue contact in the presence of material or tissue micromotion offer the potential to conduct novel measurements and develop future therapies that require chronic interface with the peripheral nervous system. However, such remains an open challenge given the constraints of existing materials sets and manufacturing approaches for design and fabrication of neural interfaces. Here, we investigated the potential to leverage a rapid prototyping approach for the design and fabrication of nerve cuffs that contain supporting features to mechanically stabilize the interaction between cuff electrodes and peripheral nerve. A hybrid 3D printing and robotic-embedding (i.e., pick-and-place) system was used to design and fabricate silicone nerve cuffs (800 µm diameter) containing conforming platinum (Pt) electrodes. We demonstrate that the electrical impedance of the cuff electrodes can be reduced by deposition of the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) on cuff electrodes via a post-processing electropolymerization technique. The computer-aided design and manufacturing approach was also used to design and integrate supporting features to the cuff that mechanically stabilize the interface between the cuff electrodes and the peripheral nerve. Both ‘self-locking’ and suture-assisted locking mechanisms are demonstrated based on the principle of making geometric alterations to the cuff opening via 3D printing. Ultimately, this work shows 3D printing offers considerable opportunity to integrate supporting features, and potentially even novel electronic materials, into nerve cuffs that can support the design and engineering of next generation neural interfaces.
Viewed as a branch of model theory, finite model theory is concerned with finite structures and their properties under logical, combinatorial, algorithmic and complexity theoretic aspects. The connection of classical concerns of logic and model theory with issues in complexity theory has contributed very much and complexity theoretic aspects. The connection of classical concerns of logic and model theory with issues in complexity theory has contributed very much to the development of finite model theory into a field with its own specific flavour.
I like to think of this monograph as a study which — with a particular theme of its own — exemplifies and reflects some central ideas and lines of research in finite model theory. The particular theme is that of bounded variable infinitary logics, with and without counting quantifiers, related fixed-point logics, and corresponding fragments of PTIME. The relations with PTIME exhibit that fruitful exchange between ideas from logic and from complexity theory that is characteristic of finite model theory and, more specifically, of the research programme of descriptive complexity.
Among the main particular topics and techniques I would emphasize:
— the importance of games as a fundamental tool from classical logic; their use in the analysis of finite structures also with respect to algorithmic and complexity theoretic concerns is amply illustrated.
- the role of cardinality phenomena, which clearly are amongst the most fundamental guidelines in the analysis of finite structures.
- the importance of combinatorial techniques, and of dealing with concrete combinatorial problems over finite domains. Examples here range from applications of the stable colouring technique in the formation of structural invariants to certain colourings of squares that come up in canonization for logics with two variables.
In order that this study may be useful also as an introduction to some of the important concepts in the field, I have tried to treat the particular theme in a detailed and mostly self-contained manner. On the other hand this treatment leads up to specific results of a more technical nature, and I welcome the opportunity to present some contributions in a broader context.
Since their inception, the Perspectives in Logic and Lecture Notes in Logic series have published seminal works by leading logicians. Many of the original books in the series have been unavailable for years, but they are now in print once again. In this volume, the ninth publication in the Lecture Notes in Logic series, Martin Otto gives an introduction to finite model theory that indicates the main ideas and lines of inquiry that motivate research in this area. Particular attention is paid to bounded variable infinitary logics, with and without counting quantifiers, related fixed-point logics, and the corresponding fragments of Ptime. The relations with Ptime exhibit the fruitful exchange between ideas from logic and from complexity theory that is characteristic of finite model theory.
Finite model theory deals with the model theory of finite structures. As a branch of model theory it is concerned with the analysis of structural properties in terms of logics. The attention to finite structures is not so much a restriction in scope as a shift in perspective. The main parts of classical model theory (the model theory related to first-order logic) as well as of abstract model theory (the comparative model theory of other logics) almost exclusively concern infinite structures; finite models are disregarded as trivial in some respects and as intractable in others. In fact, the most successful tools of classical model theory fail badly in restriction to finite structures. The compactness theorem in particular, which is one of the corner stones of classical model theory, does not hold in the realm of finite structures. Several examples of other important theorems from classical model theory that are no longer true in the finite case are discussed in [Gur84].
There are on the other hand specific new issues to be considered in the finite. These issues mainly account for the growing interest in finite model theory and promote its development into a theory in its own right. One of the specific issues in a model theory of finite structures is complexity. Properties and transformations of finite structures can be considered under algebraic and combinatorial aspects, under the aspect of logical definability, and also under the aspect of computational complexity. Issues of computational complexity form one of the main links also between finite model theory and theoretical computer science.
In this introduction I merely intend to indicate selectively some main ideas and lines of research that motivate the present investigations. There are a number of surveys that also cover various other aspects of finite model theory — see for instance [Fag90, Gur84, Gur88, Imm87a, Imm89]. A general reference is the new textbook on finite model theory by Ebbinghaus and Flum [EF95].