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To assess areas at risk for poliovirus circulation in Ecuador, we first selected provinces at highest risk based on low immunization coverage with three doses of oral poliovirus vaccine, and a low number of reported cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP). Subsequently, we reviewed discharge data for the period 1996–2000 for diagnoses compatible with AFP in the only two national referral hospitals in Quito, and at least two main hospitals in each of the six selected provinces. Environmental samples from one or two cities/towns in each selected province were tested for poliovirus. Of the 14 identified AFP-compatible cases, 8 (57%) had been previously reported and investigated. We visited four out of the six unreported cases; none of those four had sequelae compatible with poliomyelitis. From the 14 environmental samples taken, we identified Sabin viruses in six of the samples; no vaccine-derived polioviruses were isolated. Using this methodology, we found no evidence of undetected poliovirus circulation in Ecuador.
To assess the efficacy of both natural products (vinegar, baking soda) and common commercial disinfectants (Vesphene Ilse, TBQ, Clorox, Lysol Disinfectant Spray, Lysol Antibacterial Kitchen Cleaner, Mr. Clean Ultra, ethanol) designed for home or institutional use against potential human pathogens, including selected antibiotic-resistant bacteria.
A quantitative suspension test was used to assess the efficacy of selected disinfectants following exposure times of 30 seconds and 5 minutes. Activity was assessed against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella choleraesuis, Escherichia coli 0157:H7, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Selected disinfectants were also tested against poliovirus, vancomycin-susceptible and -resistant Enterococcus species, and methicillin-susceptible and -resistant S aureus.
The following compounds demonstrated excellent antimicrobial activity (>5.6-8.2 log10 reduction) at both exposure times: TBQ, Vesphene, Clorox, ethanol, and Lysol Antibacterial Kitchen Cleaner. Mr. Clean eliminated 4 to >6 logs10 and Lysol Disinfectant ~4 logs10 of pathogenic microorganisms at both exposure times. Vinegar eliminated <3 logs10 of S aureus and E coli, and baking soda <3 logs10 of all test pathogens. All tested chemical disinfectants completely inactivated both antibiotic-resistant and -susceptible bacteria at both exposure times. Only two disinfectants, Clorox and Lysol, demonstrated excellent activity (>3 log10 reduction) against poliovirus.
A variety of commercial household disinfectants were highly effective against potential bacterial pathogens. The natural products were less effective than commercial household disinfectants. Only Clorox and Lysol disinfectant were effective against poliovirus
To assess the virucidal activity of three disinfectants (sodium hypochlorite, a phenolic, and a quaternary ammonium compound) in the presence and absence of blood.
Disinfectants at varying concentrations (hypochlorite: 5,000, 500, or 50 ppm; phenolic: 1:10 or 1:128 dilution; quaternary ammonium compound: 1:10 or 1:128 dilution) were added to either saline or whole blood (final concentration, 80% or 20% blood) and mixed. Test organisms included an attenuated vaccine strain of poliovirus type 1 (prototype for relatively resistant hydrophilic viruses) and herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 (prototype for relatively susceptible lipophilic viruses). Virus was added to create a viral-blood suspension. Viral survival was tested at room temperature at the following times: 0, 15 seconds, 30 seconds, 1 minute, 2 minutes, 5 minutes, and 10 minutes. A neutralizer stopped the reaction, and virus was assayed using a plaque technique.
In the absence of blood, complete inactivation of HSV was achieved within 30 seconds with 5,000 (1:10 dilution of bleach) and 500 (1:100 dilution of bleach) ppm chlorine, 1:10 and 1:128 diluted phenolic (use dilution), and 1:10 and 1:128 diluted quaternary ammonium compound (use dilution). In the presence of 80% blood, only 5,000 ppm hypochlorite, 1:10 phenolic, and 1:10 or 1:128 quaternary ammonium compound were effective. In the absence of blood, complete inactivation of polio was achieved within 30 seconds by 5,000 and 500 ppm chlorine and 1:10 quaternary ammonium compound. In the presence of 80% blood, no solution tested was capable of completely inactivating poliovirus within 10 minutes.
Our data suggest that, in the absence of visible blood, environmental surfaces may be disinfected with a diluted hypochlorite solution (1:10 or 1:100), a phenolic, or a quaternary ammonium compound. Based on our studies using HSV, which has similar susceptibilities to disinfectants as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), phenolics at their use dilution and 1:100 diluted hypochlorite are unlikely to inactivate HIV or hepatitis B virus reliably in the presence of blood. Hypochlorite at a final concentration of 5,000 ppm (1:10 dilution) should be used to decontaminate blood spills, but, even after decontamination, care should be used to avoid sharps injuries.
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