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In much of Europe, the advent of low-input cereal farming regimes between c.ad 800 and 1200 enabled landowners—lords—to amass wealth by greatly expanding the amount of land under cultivation and exploiting the labour of others. Scientific analysis of plant remains and animal bones from archaeological contexts is generating the first direct evidence for the development of such low-input regimes. This article outlines the methods used by the FeedSax project to resolve key questions regarding the ‘cerealization’ of the medieval countryside and presents preliminary results using the town of Stafford as a worked example. These indicate an increase in the scale of cultivation in the Mid-Saxon period, while the Late Saxon period saw a shift to a low-input cultivation regime and probably an expansion onto heavier soils. Crop rotation appears to have been practised from at least the mid-tenth century.
The early Middle Ages saw a major expansion of cereal cultivation across large parts of Europe thanks to the spread of open-field farming. A major project to trace this expansion in England by deploying a range of scientific methods is generating direct evidence for this so-called ‘Medieval Agricultural Revolution’.
We consider connectivity properties and asymptotic slopes for certain random directed graphs on ℤ2 in which the set of points
that the origin connects to is always infinite. We obtain conditions under which the complement of
has no infinite connected component. Applying these results to one of the most interesting such models leads to an improved lower bound for the critical occupation probability for oriented site percolation on the triangular lattice in two dimensions.
The use of underground geological repositories, such as in radioactive waste disposal (RWD) and in carbon capture (widely known as Carbon Capture and Storage; CCS), constitutes a key environmental priority for the 21st century. Based on the identification of key scientific questions relating to the geophysics, geochemistry and geobiology of geodisposal of wastes, this paper describes the possibility of technology transfer from high-technology areas of the space exploration sector, including astrobiology, planetary sciences, astronomy, and also particle and nuclear physics, into geodisposal. Synergies exist between high technology used in the space sector and in the characterization of underground environments such as repositories, because of common objectives with respect to instrument miniaturization, low power requirements, durability under extreme conditions (in temperature and mechanical loads) and operation in remote or otherwise difficult to access environments.
We study the asymptotic behaviour of random walks in i.i.d. random environments on
. The environments need not be elliptic, so some steps may not be available to the random walker. We prove a monotonicity result for the velocity (when it exists) for any 2-valued environment, and show that this does not hold for 3-valued environments without additional assumptions. We give a proof of directional transience and the existence of positive speeds under strong but non-trivial conditions on the distribution of the environment. Our results include generalisations (to the non-elliptic setting) of 0-1 laws for directional transience and, in 2-dimensions, the existence of a deterministic limiting velocity.
Long-run income convergence is investigated in the U.S. context. We employ a novel pairwise econometric procedure based on a probabilistic definition of convergence. The time-series properties of all the possible regional income pairs are examined by means of unit root and non-cointegration tests, where inference is based on the fraction of rejections. We distinguish between the cases of strong convergence, where the implied cointegrating vector is [1, −1], and weak convergence, where long-run homogeneity is relaxed. To address cross-sectional dependence, we employ a bootstrap methodology to derive the empirical distribution of the fraction of rejections. We find supporting evidence of U.S. states sharing a common stochastic trend consistent with a definition of convergence based on long-run forecasts of state incomes being proportional rather than equal. We find that the strength of convergence between states decreases with distance and initial income disparity. Using Metropolitan Statistical Area data, evidence for convergence is stronger.
In 1926 the Revd James Houston Baxter, Professor of Ecclesiastical History at the University of St Andrews, wrote in the Records of the Scottish Church History Society: ‘The attempts of modern Roman Catholics to describe the Roman Church in Scotland have been, with the exception of Bellesheim’s History, disfigured not only by uncritical partisanship, which is perhaps unavoidable, but by a glaring lack of scholarship, which makes them both useless and harmful.’ The same issue of the journal makes it clear that Roman Catholics were not welcome as members of the society. This essay will look at the historiography of the Scottish Reformation to see how the Catholics ‘fought back’ against the aspersions cast on them, and how a partisan Protestant view was dethroned with the help of another society founded ten years before the Ecclesiastical History Society, the Scottish Catholic Historical Association (SCHA).
rimary Objectives: To examine the HADS structure in TBI, using Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), and investigate the effects of TBI severity, Gender, and Age on factor scores. Methods and Procedures: HADS data from 186 TBI patients in a population study in Tasmania were subjected to EFA. HADS data from a second sample of 185 TBI participants in the same study underwent CFA. One-month follow-up data were used, allowing inclusion of severe TBI patients while still being early post-injury. Factor loadings were used to investigate the effects of demographic and clinical variables at 2 weeks post-injury. Results: While EFA suggested 2-factor (anxiety, depression) and 3-factor (anxiety, psychomotor, depression) structures provided adequate descriptions, CFA strongly supported the 3-factor model. Using this model, significant effects of TBI severity were noted on Psychomotor and Depression scores at 2 weeks post-injury. Males reported significantly fewer symptoms on all 3 factors, as did younger participants. Conclusions: CFA indicates that a 3-factor model provides the best fit for HADS data in TBI. One factor, Psychomotor, has been relatively neglected in the literature, and the current findings suggest its assessment and rehabilitation should receive more attention.
In this paper, we explore the strong rotation limit of the rotating and stratified Boussinesq equations with periodic boundary conditions when the stratification is order 1 ([Rossby number] Ro = ε, [Froude number] Fr = O(1), as ε → 0). Using the same framework of Embid & Majda (Geophys. Astrophys. Fluid Dyn., vol. 87, 1998, p. 1), we show that the slow dynamics decouples from the fast. Furthermore, we derive equations for the slow dynamics and their conservation laws. The horizontal momentum equations reduce to the two-dimensional Navier–Stokes equations. The equation for the vertically averaged vertical velocity includes a term due to the vertical average of the buoyancy. The buoyancy equation, the only variable to retain its three-dimensionality, is advected by all three two-dimensional slow velocity components. The conservation laws for the slow dynamics include those for the two-dimensional Navier–Stokes equations and a new conserved quantity that describes dynamics between the vertical kinetic energy and the buoyancy. The leading order potential enstrophy is slow while the leading order total energy retains both fast and slow dynamics. We also perform forced numerical simulations of the rotating Boussinesq equations to demonstrate support for three aspects of the theory in the limit Ro → 0: (i) we find the formation and persistence of large-scale columnar Taylor–Proudman flows in the presence of O(1) Froude number; after a spin-up time, (ii) the ratio of the slow total energy to the total energy approaches a constant and that at the smallest Rossby numbers that constant approaches 1 and (iii) the ratio of the slow potential enstrophy to the total potential enstrophy also approaches a constant and that at the lowest Rossby numbers that constant is 1. The results of the numerical simulations indicate that even in the presence of the low wavenumber white noise forcing the dynamics exhibit characteristics of the theory.
The continental margin of southern South Africa exhibits an array of emergent marginal marine sediments permitting the reconstruction of long-term eustatic sea-level changes. We report a suite of optical luminescence ages and supplementary amino acid racemization data, which provide paleosea-level index points for three sites on this coastline. Deposits in the Swartvlei and Groot Brak estuaries display tidal inlet facies overlain by shoreface or eolian facies. Contemporary facies relations suggest a probable high stand 6.0-8.5 m above modern sea level (amsl). At Cape Agulhas, evidence of a past sea-level high stand comprises a gravel beach (ca. 3.8 m amsl) and an overlying sandy shoreface facies (up to 7.5 m amsl). OSL ages between 138±7 ka and 118±7 ka confirm a last interglacial age for all marginal marine facies. The high stand was followed by a sea-level regression that was associated with the accumulation of eolian dunes dating to between 122±7 ka and 113±6 ka. These data provide the first rigorous numerical age constraints for last interglacial sea-level fluctuations in this region, revealing the timing and elevation of the last interglacial high stand to broadly mirror a number of other far-field locations.