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OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Clinical guidelines recommend using predicted atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk to inform treatment decisions. The objective was to compare the contribution of changes in modifiable risk factors Versus aging to the development of high 10-year predicted ASCVD risk. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Prospective follow-up of the Jackson Heart Study, an exclusively African-American cohort, at visit 1 (2000–2004) and visit 3 (2009–2012). Analyses included 1115 African-American participants without a high 10-year predicted ASCVD risk (<7.5%), hypertension, diabetes, or ASCVD at visit 1. We used the Pooled Cohort equations to calculate the incidence of high (≥7.5%) 10-year predicted ASCVD risk at visit 3. We recalculated the percentage with a high 10-year predicted ASCVD risk at visit 3 assuming each risk factor [age, systolic blood pressure (SBP), antihypertensive medication use, diabetes, smoking, total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol], one at a time, did not change from visit 1. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: The mean age at visit 1 was 45.2±9.5 years. Overall, 30.9% (95% CI 28.3%–33.4%) of participants developed high 10-year predicted ASCVD risk. Aging accounted for 59.7% (95% CI 54.2%–65.1%) of the development of high 10-year predicted ASCVD risk compared with 32.8% (95% CI 27.0%–38.2%) for increases in SBP or antihypertensive medication initiation and 12.8% (95% CI 9.6%–16.5%) for incident diabetes. Among participants <50 years, the contribution of increases in SBP or antihypertensive medication initiation was similar to aging. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Increases in SBP and antihypertensive medication initiation are major contributors to the development of high 10-year predicted ASCVD risk in African Americans, particularly among younger adults.
The Protoplanetary Discussions conference—held in Edinburgh, UK, from 2016 March 7th–11th—included several open sessions led by participants. This paper reports on the discussions collectively concerned with the multi-physics modelling of protoplanetary discs, including the self-consistent calculation of gas and dust dynamics, radiative transfer, and chemistry. After a short introduction to each of these disciplines in isolation, we identify a series of burning questions and grand challenges associated with their continuing development and integration. We then discuss potential pathways towards solving these challenges, grouped by strategical, technical, and collaborative developments. This paper is not intended to be a review, but rather to motivate and direct future research and collaboration across typically distinct fields based on community-driven input, to encourage further progress in our understanding of circumstellar and protoplanetary discs.
The HR 8799 four-planet host is known to host a multi-component disk from Spitzer observations. We have obtained Herschel† observations of the disk which provide increased sensitivity and resolution of its outer components: the planetesimal belt and halo. We find that the two components cannot be discerned from the spectral energy distribution alone, but require resolved images to independently identify them. In the resolved images, the halo stands out for its steep radial profile and large radial extent to 2000 AU, a factor of two larger than was estimated from Spitzer data.
Using photometry at just two wavelengths it is possible to fit a blackbody to the spectrum of infrared excess that is the signature of a debris disc. From this the location of the dust can be inferred. However, it is well known that dust in debris discs is not a perfect blackbody. By resolving debris discs we can find the actual location of the dust and compare this to that inferred from the blackbody fit. Using the Herschel Space Observatory we resolved many systems as part of the DEBRIS survey. Here we discuss a sample of 9 discs surrounding A stars and find that the discs are actually located between 1 and 2.5 times further from their star than predicted by blackbody fits to the spectral energy distribution (SED). The variation in this ratio is due to differences in stellar luminosities, location of the dust, size distribution and composition of the dust.
In the elderly, immunosenescence and malnourishment can contribute to increased risk and severity of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI). Gold kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis ‘Hort16A’) contains nutrients important for immune function and mitigation of symptoms of infection, including vitamins C and E, folate, polyphenols and carotenoids. The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether regular consumption of gold kiwifruit reduces symptoms of URTI in older people, and determine the effect it has on plasma antioxidants, and markers of oxidative stress, inflammation and immune function. A total of thirty-two community-dwelling people ( ≥ 65 years) participated in a randomised crossover study, consuming the equivalent of four kiwifruit or two bananas daily for 4 weeks, with treatments separated by a 4-week washout period. Participants completed the Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey-21 daily, and blood samples were collected at baseline and at the end of each treatment and washout period. Gold kiwifruit did not significantly reduce the overall incidence of URTI compared with banana, but significantly reduced the severity and duration of head congestion, and the duration of sore throat. Gold kiwifruit significantly increased plasma vitamin C, α-tocopherol and lutein/zeaxanthin concentrations, and erythrocyte folate concentrations, and significantly reduced plasma lipid peroxidation. No changes to innate immune function (natural killer cell activity, phagocytosis) or inflammation markers (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, homocysteine) were detected. Consumption of gold kiwifruit enhanced the concentrations of several dietary plasma analytes, which may contribute to reduced duration and severity of selected URTI symptoms, offering a novel tool for reducing the burden of URTI in older individuals.
Without realizing it perhaps, the research activities of many parasitologists are often focused upon the study of parasites most commonly found in children. Though there is little recognition of paediatric parasitology as a separate topic within medical parasitology, with the global interest in promotion of maternal and child health, alleviation of diseases associated with poverty and requirements of ‘child-sized’ medicines, a more formal consideration is now timely. Recent research, for example, has highlighted that defining precisely the ‘first-age’ at which parasites interfere with a child's health, or normal developmental processes, is being revised. Attention is now drawn towards ever younger subjects, for parasites have the capacity to also influence the health of the foetus within the in utero environment, altering immune-development. These subtle, yet evolutionary profound interactions perhaps manifest themselves as to why some children are more prone to infection(s), develop overt disease and sadly die while others do not. Here, we address the growing importance of paediatric parasitology and its applications within disease control strategies as highlighted in the 2010 Autumn Symposium of the British Society of Parasitology.
It is now widely recognized that a decentralized approach to the control of parasitic infections in rural sub-Saharan populations allows for the design of more effective control programmes and encourages high compliance. Compliance is usually an indicator of treatment success, but cannot be used as a measure of long-term benefit since re-infection will be strongly influenced by a number of factors including the social ecology of a community. In this paper qualitative and quantitative methods are used to identify and understand the structural and behavioural constraints that may influence water contact behaviour and create inequalities with respect to Schistosoma re-infection following anti-helminth drug treatment. The research is set in a community where participant engagement has remained uniformly high throughout the course of a 10-year multidisciplinary study on treatment and re-infection, but where levels of re-infection have not been uniform and, because of variations in water contact behaviour, have varied by age, sex and ethnic background. Variations in the biomedical knowledge of schistosomiasis, socioeconomic constraints and ethnic differences in general attitudes towards life and health are identified that may account for some of these behavioural differences. The observations highlight the benefits of understanding the socio-ecology of control and research settings at several levels (both between and within ethnic groups); this will help to design more effective and universally beneficial interventions for control and help to interpret research findings.
The eccentric orbits of the known extrasolar giant planets provide evidence that most planet-forming environments undergo violent dynamical instabilities. Here, we numerically simulate the impact of giant planet instabilities on planetary systems as a whole. We find that populations of inner rocky and outer icy bodies are both shaped by the giant planet dynamics and are naturally correlated. Strong instabilities – those with very eccentric surviving giant planets – completely clear out their inner and outer regions. In contrast, systems with stable or low-mass giant planets form terrestrial planets in their inner regions and outer icy bodies produce dust that is observable as debris disks at mid-infrared wavelengths. Fifteen to twenty percent of old stars are observed to have bright debris disks (at λ ~ 70μm) and we predict that these signpost dynamically calm environments that should contain terrestrial planets.
Did the banana, yam and taro arrive in Australia at the hands of Europeans or come across the Torres Strait 2000 years before? Reviewing the evidence from herbaria histories and anthropology, the authors propose a ‘hierarchy of hypotheses’ and consider a still earlier option, that these food plants were potentially grown in Australia at least 8000 years ago, while it was still joined to New Guinea. This hypothesis, first proposed by Jones and Meehan in 1989, locates early horticultural experiments among peoples too often seen as inveterate hunter-gatherers.
Previous studies have developed models for the growth and migration of three planets orbiting HD 69830. We perform n-body simulations using MERCURY (Chambers 1999) to explore the implications of these models for: 1) the excitation of planetary orbits via planet-planet interactions, 2) the accretion and clearing of a putative planetesimal disk, 3) the distribution of planetesimal orbits following migration, and 4) the implications for the origin of the observed infrared emission from the HD 69830 system. We report preliminary results that suggest new constraints on the formation of HD 69830.
The local atomic environment and vibrational properties of monoclinic α-Pu, orthorhombic α-U, and the α-U charge-density-wave (CDW) modulation are examined by extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS). Debye-Waller factors from temperature-dependent EXAFS measurements are fit to a correlated Debye model. The observed Pu-Pu bond Debye temperature is θcD(α-Pu) = 162 ± 5 K for the pure α-Pu phase. The temperature dependence of the U-U nearest neighbor and second nearest neighbor Debye-Waller factors exhibits a sharp discontinuity in slope near TCDW = 43 K, the transition temperature at which the charge-density wave (CDW) in α-U occurs. Our measurement of the CDW using EXAFS is the first observation of the structure of the CDW in polycrystalline α-U.
A project to enhance access to architectural drawings and manuscripts has recently begun at the Victoria and Albert Museum (V&A) in London. Two major collections of designs - those in the V&A’s Prints, Drawings and Paintings Collection and those in the Special Collections of the British Architectural Library at the Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) - will be housed together at the Museum from 2003. In this article two of the V&A’s curators outline the planning for the move, which involves modifying existing space to provide new accommodation for staff, storage and consultation by the public, and describe the broader partnership between the two institutions, which promises much for the study and appreciation of architecture.
The impact of environmental risk on toddlers' cognitive and linguistic development was investigated in a longitudinal study of 78 high-risk families. The risk factors examined were family social status, mother's psychosocial functioning, and quality of dyadic involvement at 1 year of age (including measures of mother-infant interaction and infant-mother attachment security). Child outcome measures included the Bayley MDI (at 24 months) and the Preschool Language Scale (at 36 months). The data indicate that dyadic involvement was an important mediator in the relation between environmental risk and subsequent child competence. Specific relations among early interactive experiences, infant attachment security, and subsequent cognitive and linguistic gain were examined within a framework of risk and protective factors. The results suggest that secure attachment may operate as a protective factor, but only among the more extreme cases in this exclusively high-risk sample.
Selected features of infection control programs among the 163 general hospitals in Tennessee were surveyed in 1976 and 1979. Each hospital but one had a designated infection control practitioner. Three-fourths of the hospitals had fewer than 200 beds and most were in rural areas. The practitioners in these small hospitals worked in an isolated professional milieu: few (4%) had attended a basic training course or were members of a national (11%) or local (16%) infection control association. They also had significantly less access to standard infection control resource publications than did practitioners in large hospitals. Use of aqueous quaternary ammonium compounds for disinfection was reported by 37% of all hospitals in 1979; 68% of hospitals routinely performed bacteriologic cultures of personnel or the environment. In contrast, only 3% of hospitals did not have a policy specifying the use of sterile closed-system drainage of indwelling bladder catheters. Although these practices varied somewhat by hospital size, the differences were not statistically significant. Modest improvement in each parameter was noted since 1976. Pathology was the most common medical specialty (34%) among chairman of infection control committees; internal medicine and pediatrics accounted for only 13%. The practice of routine microbiologic monitoring was significantly more common among hospitals with chairmen who were pathologists. The implications of these findings for national priorities in hospital infection control are discussed.
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