To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Traumatic memory is a key symptom in psychological trauma victims and may remain vivid for several years. Psychotherapy has shown that neither the psychopathological signs of trauma nor the expression of traumatic memories are static over time. However, few studies have investigated the neural substrates of psychotherapy-related symptom changes.
We studied 16 subthreshold post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) subjects by using a script-driven symptom provocation paradigm adapted for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) that was read aloud during traumatic memory retrieval both before and after exposure-based and cognitive restructuring therapy. Their neural activity levels were compared with a control group comprising 11 waiting-list subthreshold PTSD patients, who were age- and profile-matched with the psychotherapy group.
Significantly higher activity was observed in the parietal lobes, left hippocampus, thalamus and left prefrontal cortex during memory retrieval after psychotherapy. Positive correlations were found between activity changes in the left prefrontal cortex and left thalamus, and also between the left prefrontal cortex and left parietal lobe.
Neural mechanisms involved in subthreshold PTSD may share neural similarities with those underlying the fragmented and non-verbal nature of traumatic memories in full PTSD. Moreover, psychotherapy may influence the development of a narrative pattern overlaying the declarative memory neural substrates.
The formal objective of the Exchange-Rate Mechanism (ERM) of the European Monetary System (EMS) is the stabilisation, within generally narrow pre-agreed bounds, of member countries' nominal exchange rates. Since the EMS is an exchange-rate mechanism of a customs union, however, it must be expected (if it is to survive in the long run) to ensure that member countries' competitiveness is protected; otherwise, the protection-reducing achievements of the customs union must be called into question as countries seek to restore their terms of trade. This is to suggest that, at the same time as the immediate and formal objective of the system is to stabilise nominal rates of exchange, its inner long-run rationale involves a requirement on real rates of exchange. This fundamental ambiguity accounts for what Goodhart (1986) has termed an ‘unholy alliance’ among those advocating British participation in the ERM – between those who seek to consolidate the counter-inflation gains of recent years and those who wish to protect the competitiveness of sterling from any repetition of the devastating overappreciation of the 1980–1 period. The two objectives are clearly not compatible without a convergence of inflation, at equilibrium levels of activity and external balance, between the member countries. In the period of the system's functioning so far, progress towards this objective has been provided in the historical context of the second OPEC oil shock, which induced among countries generally – and members of the EMS in particular – a strong desire to reduce inflation. Given Germany's low inflation rate and (recent) historical reputation for counter-inflationary policy, this has implied to a degree convergence on the German standard.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.