Trypanosoma rangeli is a protozoan parasite, which does not cause disease in humans, although it can produce different levels of pathogenicity to triatomines, their invertebrate hosts. We tested whether infection imposed a temperature-dependent cost on triatomine fitness using T. rangeli with different life histories. Parasites cultured only in liver infusion tryptose medium (cultured) and parasites exposed to cyclical passages through mice and triatomines (passaged) were used. We held infected insects at four temperatures between 21 and 30 °C and measured T. rangeli growth in vitro at the same temperatures in parallel. Overall, T. rangeli infection induced negative effects on insect fitness. In the case of cultured infection, parasite effects were temperature-dependent. Intermoult period, mortality rates and ecdysis success were affected in those insects exposed to lower temperatures (21 and 24 °C). For passaged-infected insects, the effects were independent of temperature, intermoult period being prolonged in all infected groups. Trypanosoma rangeli seem to be less tolerant to higher temperatures since cultured-infected insects showed a reduction in the infection rates and passaged-infected insects decreased the salivary gland infection rates in those insects submitted to 30 °C. In vitro growth of T. rangeli was consistent with these results.