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Coating barley seeds with free and immobilized alkaline phosphatase was investigated as a potential means to enhance plant utilization of accumulated soil phosphorus (P). Two coating techniques were studied: film-coating and pelleting. The highest phosphatase activity retention in the coating layer, ranging from 0·48 to 0·67, was observed when seeds were film-coated with phosphatase–polyresorcinol complex (PPC). The germination of seeds film-coated or pelleted with alkaline phosphatase ranged from 0·84 to 0·97 or 0·14 to 0·25, respectively. Low germination of the pelleted seeds was attributed to freezing the seeds in liquid nitrogen (N) for the layer coating formation. Pelleted seeds were not used in the remainder of the studies. Under pot culture conditions, an increase in the soil inorganic P was detected when the seeds were film-coated with phosphatase. Moreover, the film-coating significantly increased the P uptake by plants (between 25 and 31% after 35 days after planting (DAP)). The present study showed that the seed film-coating with free and immobilized phosphatase increased the phosphatase activity in the rhizosphere and the P uptake by plants.
Thalamic volume deficits are associated with psychosis but it is unclear whether the volume reduction is uniformly distributed or whether it is more severe in particular thalamic regions.
To quantify whole and regional thalamic volume in males with early-onset psychosis and healthy male controls.
Brain scans were obtained for 80 adolescents: 46 individuals with early-onset psychosis with a duration of positive symptoms less than 6 months and 34 healthy controls. All participants were younger than 19 years. Total thalamic volumes were assessed using FreeSurfer and FSL-FIRST, group comparisons of regional thalamic volumes were studied with a surface-based approach.
Total thalamic volume was smaller in participants with early-onset psychosis relative to controls. Regional thalamic volume reduction was most significant in the right anterior mediodorsal area and pulvinar.
In males with minimally treated early-onset psychosis, thalamic volume deficits may be most pronounced in the anterior mediodorsal and posterior pulvinar regions, adding strength to findings from post-mortem studies in adults with psychosis.
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