The composition of the abomasal helminth fauna and parasite diversity were studied in 298 red deer collected during 1997–2000 from three different sectors (Bolzano, Trento and Sondrio provinces) of the Stelvio National Park, one of the main protected areas of north-eastern Italy. The association between parasite burdens and geographical areas of the hosts was assessed using the negative binomial regression. A variety of abomasal helminths, both host specific and generalist, was found in all sectors. The most commonly observed parasites were the Spiculopteragia spiculoptera morph spiculoptera and Ostertagia leptospicularis morph leptospicularis, with prevalences of 79.5% and 40.9%, respectively. The minor morphs S. spiculoptera morph mathevossiani (prevalence 31.9%) and O. leptospicularis morph kolchida (18.8%) occurred at lower prevalences. Teladorsagia circumcincta morph circumcincta, Marshallagia marshalli morph marshalli and Haemonchus contortus were rarer, at prevalences of 1, 1.3 and 1.3%, respectively. Deviance analysis of the negative binomial regression model shows that the geographical area is significantly related to parasite burdens (P = 0.001). Prevalences of hosts with parasites were greater in the Sondrio (odds ratio = 1.31; 95% confidence interval: 0.16–10.85) and smaller in the Trento (odds ratio = 0.62; 95% confidence interval: 0.20–1.96) sectors with respect to Bolzano, but these differences were not statistically significant. Possible cross-infections by more generalist parasites between wild and domestic animals were also suggested, as deer and domestic ruminants (Bovinae, Caprinae and Ovinae) used the same feeding areas of the park sectors.