Host range experiments and field sampling in Nigeria produced no evidence that African rice gall midge, Orseolia oryzivora Harris – Gagné, can develop on plants other than Oryza species. Sampling in three outbreak areas during 1994 showed that the insect's annual cycle varied according to the agroecological zone and rice cropping pattern. In the humid forest zone, Orseolia oryzivora persisted through the short dry season on ratoons of cultivated rice Oryza sativa at a rainfed site and on dry season rice crops at an irrigated one. In contrast, at rainfed sites in the moist savannah zone the pest survived the longer dry season on the perennial wild rice O. longistaminata, while ratoons and volunteers of O. sativa provided 'bridges' between the wild host and wet season rice crops. Early in the wet season at rainfed sites, galls of Orseolia oryzivora were not found at high density on wild rice, ratoons or volunteers. The heavy infestations which developed by October resulted primarily from rapid multiplication on rice crops themselves during the wet season. At all 13 sites sampled, the large majority of galls were found on fallow or cropped rice fields, rather than in ditches, bunds or uncultivated wetland, irrespective of the time of year or the hosts involved. From gall dissections, the parasitoids Aprostocetus procerae (Risbec) and Platygaster diplosisae Risbec caused over 30% mortality at some sites by October but generally increased too late to prevent crop damage. Implications of the results for the management of Orseolia oryzivora are discussed.