Abdominal angiostrongyliasis (AA) is caused by Angiostrongylus costaricensis, which inhabits mesenteric arteries. There is no drug treatment for AA, and since intestinal infarction due to thrombi is one of the main complications of the disease, the use of anticoagulants may be a treatment option. Thus, we aimed to assess the effect of high doses of enoxaparin on the prevention of ischaemic intestinal lesions and on the survival of mice infected with A. costaricensis. Twenty-four mice were infected with L3 of A. costaricensis and divided equally into two groups: Group 1, control treated with placebo, and Group 2, treated daily with enoxaparin (2.5 mg/kg) for 50 days. All mice were subjected to necropsy and histological analysis. The results from gross and microscopic assessments showed no variation in the prevalence of lesions between the groups. An analysis was also performed among survivors and non-survivors, showing that animals that died often presented lesions, such as granulation tissue in the serosa, and intestinal infarction and adhesion. The mortality rate did not vary between the enoxaparin-treated and control groups. Thus, we showed that high doses of enoxaparin have no protective effect against AA, as the survival rates and lesions of mice did not vary between the treated and control groups. Considering that the use of prophylactic doses was also shown to be ineffective in a previous study, we do not recommend the use of enoxaparin for AA treatment.