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Virtual Engineering (VE), also known as Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE), is necessary in both current operational engineering qualifications and to help reduce the costs of future vertical lift design and analysis. As computational power continues to provide increasing capability to the rotorcraft engineering community to perform simulations in both real time and off line, it is imperative that the community develop verification and validation protocols and processes to certify these methods so that they can be reliably used to help reduce engineering cost and schedule. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has become a major Computational Science and Engineering (CSE) tool in the fixed wing and vertical lift communities, but it has not been developed to the point where it is accepted as a replacement for testing in certification of new or existing systems or vehicles. Since the rise of modern CFD in the 1980s, the promise of CFD’s capabilities has been met or exceeded, but its role in certification arguably remains less prominent than projected. The ability to implement transformative technologies further drives the need for CFD in design. To meet CFD’s role in certification, several goals must be met to provide a true “numerical experiment” from which accuracies (error estimates), sensitivities, and consistent application results can be extracted. This paper discusses the progress and direction towards developing CFD strategies for certification.
We present new data on the redshifts and Hα profiles of 18 medium to high redshift QSOs observed by us using the FIGS spectrometer at the Anglo-Australian Telescope facility and compare the data to that of the strong UV lines obtained in spectra taken at nearly the same time. We find that the Hα line is redshifted by an average of 1100 km s−1 with respect to CIVλ1549. Low ionization lines, such as OIλ1305 and MgIIλ2798 are shifted by similar amounts. These results are difficult to reconcile with any simple models currently available, including those where dust obscuration is solely responsible for the observed velocity shifts. The similarity between the velocities of Hα and MgII, OI provides some support for models where the Balmer lines are produced predominantly in a warm HI region, perhaps by X-ray heating, while the Lyman lines arise mainly in a population of optically thin clouds. A velocity separation between the two cloud populations, along with some obscuration, could explain the main features. However, detailed differences between lines of similar ionization suggest that the true situation is more complex.
A search for correlations between the velocity shift and other quantities revealed only one, namely with the ratio of the CIII]λ1909 and CIVλ1549 line fluxes. The meaning of this is obscure, but may relate to density or projection effects. A number of other correlations proposed by previous workers as tests for their models were sought but not found.
The frequency of avalanches at a given location is the primary variable for calculating the risk as input to zoning applications and decisions about avalanche-control options. In this paper, we present an in-depth study of avalanche frequency using an extensive data base of avalanche-occurrence records from Rogers’ Pass, British Columbia (43 avalanche paths; 24 years of records). This study, the first of its kind for high-frequency avalanche paths, yields the result that the frequency of avalanches may be described by a Poisson distribution. Study of the relationship between terrain variables and precipitation estimates shows that avalanche frequency is significantly correlated with path roughness, 30 year maximum water equivalent, east-west location from Rogers’ Pass summit, wind exposure and run-out zone elevation and inclination. With the length of avalanche-occurrence records and quality of the data, we believe our study is the most comprehensive in existence about avalanche frequency and its relation to terrain variables.
SN1987A has an intrinsic radio luminosity some four orders of magnitude less than SN1993J at maximum, largely a reflection of the tenuous wind . from the progenitor of SN1987A before explosion. Both remnants have an edge-brightened, ring-like morphology though, in the case of SN1987A, the expansion rate is currently only around 3500 km s−1. The flux density of the remnant of SN1987A continues to rise at all measured radio frequencies. Its spectral index is gradually flattening, indicating its transition into the supernova remnant phase. A campaign to increase the resolution of radio imaging by observing at higher frequencies is underway with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA).
Introduction: Emergency department (ED) overcrowding is a common and complicated challenge for EDs worldwide. Nurse-initiated protocols, diagnostics and/or treatments implemented by nurses prior to patients being seen by a physician or nurse practitioner, have been suggested as a potential strategy to improve patient flow. Methods: This randomized, pragmatic, controlled evaluation of 5 nurse-initiated protocols occured in a crowded inner-city ED. Six physicians and 44 registered nurses, 3 clinical nurse educators and 3 unit managers were involved in revising 5 patient-complaint focused protocols prior to evaluation. Thirty (30/180) emergency nurses were provided 1 hour of training on inclusion and exclusion criteria, procedure and evaluation methods. Data was abstracted in a manner concealing patient allocation. Primary outcomes evaluated included time to diagnostic test, treatment, consultation or ED length of stay. This evaluation was completed following both the CONSORT and SQUIRE guidelines. Results: Time to acetaminophen for the intervention group (n=11) was 1h:04 min on average (95%CI 30min to 1h:37min) whereas the control group (n=9) was 3h:35min (95%CI 2h:21min to 4h:48min). The average length of stay of a suspected fractured-hip in the intervention group (n=5) was 3h:34min (95%CI 1h:49min to 5h:19min) and 7h:34min for the control group (n=4) was (95%CI 5h:26min to 9h:42min). Time to troponin in the intervention group (n=29) was one quarter (average 48min, 95% CI 32min to 64min) of the time it was in the control group (n=14) (average 3h:16min, 95%CI 1h:53min to 4h:39min; p < 0.001). The vaginal bleeding in pregnancy protocol reduced length of stay by roughly fifty-percent; the intervention group (n=11) had a length of stay of 4h:57min (95%CI 3h:46min to 6h:08min) compared to 8h:33min (95% CI 6h:23min to 10h:44min) for the control (n=7) (p < 0.001). There was no statistical difference in the length of stay for patients who received protocolized diagnostics for abdominal pain. Conclusion: Targeting specific patient groups with carefully written protocols can improve the timeliness of care. A cooperative and collaborative interdisciplinary group are essential to success. Having a system in place to ensure ongoing quality in protocol application and interdisciplinary support has proven more difficult than improving the primary outcomes in this evaluation.
The radio emission associated with SN 1987A appears to be synchrotron emission resulting from the acceleration of electrons at the interface between the outward moving shock wave and clumps of circumstellar material. The Australia Telescope Compact Array is now able to resolve this region, which has dimensions of ~ arcsec, revealing a slight (10%) asphericity in the distribution of the low density gas within the [OIII] circumstellar ring. Assuming that the radio emission arises from a region just behind the shock front, we deduce a mean radial expansion velocity, from 1987 to 1992, of 29 200 kms. First observed contact of the shock with the [OIII] circumstellar ring could occur as early as mid-1993, depending on the deceleration in the intervening gas. This will probably be closely followed by shock-excited optical lines, a strong X-ray outburst and a further increase in the radio emission.
We present the result of an HI aperture synthesis mosaic of the Large Magellanic cloud (LMC), made recently with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA). The resolution of the mosaiced images is l′.0 (15 pc, using a distance to the LMC of 50 kpc). In contrast to its appearance at other wavelengths, the LMC is remarkably symmetrical in HI on the largest scales, with the bulk of the HI residing in a disk of diameter 8.°4 (7.3 kpc). Outer spiral structure is clearly seen, though the features appear to be due to differential rotation, therefore transient in nature. On small to medium scales, the combined action of numerous shells and supershells dominate the structures and motions of the HI gas in the LMC. A good correlation is seen between supershells previously identified in Hα (e.g. Meaburn 1980) and HI structures. We compare the results with a new wide-field Hα image.
We are using the 2dF spectrograph to make a survey of all objects (“stars” and “galaxies”) in a 12 deg2 region towards the Fornax cluster. We have discovered a population of compact emission-line galaxies unresolved on photographic sky survey plates and therefore missing in most galaxy surveys based on such material. These galaxies are as luminous as normal field galaxies. Using Hα to estimate star formation they contribute at least an additional 5% to the local star formation rate.
Mass loss rates have been derived for twenty one WR stars encompassing most subtypes in the WN and WC sequences, from measurements of their infrared free-free fluxes. The resultant mass loss rates show a range of only a factor of four. WC stars generally have larger mass loss rates than WN stars, the mean rates being Ṁ(WC) = 4.1x10-5 M⊙y-1 and Ṁ(WN) = 2.7x10-5 M⊙y-1. Optical and ultraviolet data have been used to estimate bolometric luminosities for a range of WR spectral types, and it is shown that the derived mass loss rates are too large to be powered by radiation pressure. The total kinetic energy ejected into the interstellar medium through mass loss during the WR phase of a massive star is estimated to be 7x1050 ergs, comparable to that of a supernova event.
The preparation of site-specific atom-probe tomography (APT) samples containing localized features has become possible with the use of focused ion beams (FIBs). This technique was used to achieve the analysis of surface oxides and oxidized grain boundaries in this paper. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), providing microstructural and chemical characterization of the same features, has also been used, revealing crucial additional information.
The study of grain boundary oxidation in stainless steels and nickel-based alloys is required in order to understand the mechanisms controlling stress corrosion cracking in nuclear reactors. Samples oxidized under simulated pressurized water reactor primary water conditions were used, and FIB lift-out TEM and APT specimens containing the same oxidized grain boundary were prepared and fully characterized. The results from both techniques were found fully consistent and complementary.
Chromium-rich spinel oxides grew at the surface and into the bulk material, along grain boundaries. Nickel was rejected from the oxides and accumulated ahead of the oxidation front. Lithium, which was present in small quantities in the aqueous environment during oxidation, was incorporated in the oxide. All phases were accurately quantified and the effect of different experimental parameters were analysed.
We have examined the properties of helium bubbles in Fe using two different Fe-He potentials. The atomic configurations and formation energies of different He-vacancy complexes are determined and their stability in the region of nearby collision cascades is investigated. The results show that the optimal He to Fe vacancy ratio increases from about 1:1 for approximately 5 vacancies up to about 4:1 for 36 vacancies. Collision cascades initiated near the complex show that Fe vacancies produced by the cascades readily become part of the He-vacancy complexes. The energy barrier for an isolated He interstitial to diffuse was found to be 0.06 eV. Thus a possible mechanism for He bubble growth would be the addition of vacancies during a radiation event followed by the subsequent accumulation of mobile He interstitials produced by the corresponding nuclear reaction.
We use spectroscopic imaging to investigate the enhancement of infra-red to visible upconversion in rare-earth doped nano-particles (NaYF4:Yb:Er) supported on nano-fabricated plasmonic substrates consisting of square lattices of Au nano-pillars fabricated by electron beam lithography and designed to support a surface plasmon polariton at frequencies which are nearresonant with the rare-earth ion (Yb3+) absorption. We observe a systematic enhancement in the efficiency of upconversion associated with the interaction of the co-doped nano-particles with the plasmonic substrate. Spectrally-resolved imaging provides a massively parallel means of assessing the range of achievable enhancement and its relation to the specific configuration of the substrate / upconverting nano-particle system. Spectrally-resolved reflectivity of the plasmonic substrates confirms the role of the surface plasmon polariton in the upconversion enhancement. Experimental results are compared to Finite Difference Time Domain simulations of the frequency-dependent reflectivity of these metallic nanostructures.
Single crystals of Ba8CoRh6O21 were grown out of a potassium carbonate flux. The structure was solved by a general method using the superspace group approach. The superspace group employed was R3m(00γ)0s with a = 10.0431(1) Å, c1 = 2.5946(1) Å and c2 = 4.5405(1) Å, V = 226.60(1) Å3. Ba8CoRh6O21 represents the first example of an m = 5, n = 3 member of the A3n+3mA'nB3m+nO9m+6n family of 2H hexagonal perovskite related oxides and contains chains consisting of six consecutive RhO6 octahedra followed by one distorted CoO6 trigonal prism. These chains in turn are separated from each other by [Ba]∞ chains.
This paper reports the results of some recent experimental studies of the solubility and sorption behaviour of lead-210 and carbon-14 under cementitious near-field conditions.
These studies have shown that under these conditions carbon-14 will have a maximum solubility limit of 10−4 M and that the distribution ratio, RD, will increase with increasing carbon-14 concentrations from 10−9 to 10−7 M. Not all of the carbon in the cement is available for exchange with carbon in the pore water. Differences in values of RD are observed between the two cement grout types studied, SRPC and OPC/BFS. Lead has been shown to have a maximum solubility limit of about 10−3 M at high pH. Good agreement is obtained between these measurements and thermodynamic modelling using the PHREEQE code. No differences were observed between lead solubilities under reducing or oxidising conditions at high pH values using the same phase separation techniques. Lead is particularly sensitive to the phase separation techniques employed. A factor of up to 250 difference is observed between 25000 and 30000 molecular weight cut-off filters. The values of RD for lead increase with decreasing lead concentrations and the values of RD for 10−3 M solutions are observed to be 500 mlg−1 for SRPC and 1300 mlg−1 for OPC/BFS.