Latitudinal patterns of composition, biogeographic affinity and indicators of taxonomic diversity are described for the by-catch fish community in five typical shrimping areas in the Mexican Pacific (Upper Gulf of California, Sinaloa-Nayarit, Jalisco-Colima, Michoacán-Guerrero and Gulf of Tehuantepec). The taxonomic composition included two classes, 20 orders, 65 families, 147 genera and 292 species. The family Sciaenidae was the best represented with 33 species, whereas at the genus level, Anchoa was represented with eight species. A high percentage of the species showed wide distribution ranges (30.2% for Cortez Province ~ Panamic Province; 21.3% for San Diego Province ~ Panamic Province); nevertheless, each ecosystem included a characteristic combination of species, apparently related to the physiographic conditions of the ecosystems. Species richness showed a pronounced decrease from the Upper Gulf of California, which has warm-temperate features, to the Gulf of Tehuantepec, which has tropical conditions; this is an opposite trend to that observed in the taxonomic diversity indicators, suggesting that a taxonomic redundancy was present in tropical areas and higher taxonomic diversity was present in the Upper Gulf of California, despite the lower species richness. This is explained by the prevailing environmental conditions and isolation processes generated during the formation of the Gulf of California.