Class A psychophysical observations are based on the linking hypothesis that perceptually distinguishable stimuli must correspond to different brain events. Class B observations are related to the appearance of stimuli not their discriminability. There is no clear linking hypothesis underlying Class B observations, but they are necessary for studying the effects of context on appearance, including a large class of phenomena known as “illusions.” Class B observations are necessarily measures of observer bias (Fechner’s “constant error”) as opposed to Class A measures of sensitivity (Fechner’s “variable error”). It is therefore important that Class B observations distinguish between response biases, decisional biases, and perceptual biases. This review argues that the commonly used method of single stimuli fails to do this, and that multiple-alternative forced choice (mAFC) methods can do a better job, particularly if combined with a roving pedestal.