Schistosomiasis – caused by trematodes from the genus Schistosoma – affects more than 200 million people worldwide. Growing resistance to therapy with praziquantel (PZQ) has encouraged the search for novel treatments against this neglected disease. The compound 7-epiclusianone (7-epi) – isolated from ‘bacupari’ (the fruit of the Gracinia brasiliensis tree) – has promising activity against Schistosoma mansoni in vitro, damaging the parasite's tegument. However, the target and mechanism of action of 7-epi have not been identified. Here, we examined the possibility that 7-epi harms the tegument by inhibiting parasite superoxide dismutase (SOD), which protects the tegument from damage by reactive oxygen species produced by host immune cells. Molecular docking analysis in silico suggested strong interactions between 7-epi and S. mansoni cytosolic superoxide dismutase (SmCtSOD) at allosteric cavities. Schistosoma mansoni couples were cultivated ex vivo with 12.44–198.96 μm 7-epi for 24 h, and then parasite extracts were tested for lipid peroxidation (as a surrogate for oxidative stress), and SOD activity and expression. Lipid peroxidation levels increased after incubation with concentrations ≥99.48 μm 7-epi, and this compound reduced SOD activity at concentrations ≥24.87 μm. However, contact with 7-epi did not alter SOD expression, by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Our results show that the inhibition of SmCtSOD is partly responsible for the tegument detachment observed after incubation with 7-epi, but is not the only cause of the antiparasitic action of this compound in vitro.