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To compare resuscitation outcomes before and after switching from manual cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) to load-distributing band (LDB) CPR in a multi-center Emergency Departments (ED) trial.
This is a phased, prospective cohort evaluation with intention-to-treat analysis of adults with non-traumatic cardiac arrest. The intervention is change in the system from manual CPR to LDB-CPR at two Urban EDs. The main outcome measure is survival to hospital discharge, with secondary outcome measures of return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), survival to hospital admission and neurological outcome at discharge.
A total of 1,011 patients were included in the study, with 459 in the manual CPR phase (January 01, 2004, to August 24, 2007) and 552 patients in the LDB-CPR phase (August 16, 2007, to December 31, 2009). In the LDB phase, the LDB device was applied in 454 patients (82.3%). Patients in the manual CPR and LDB-CPR phases were comparable for mean age, gender and ethnicity. Rates for ROSC were comparable with LDB-CPR (manual 22.4% vs. LDB 35.3%; adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.63-1.83). Survival to hospital admission was increased, Manual 14.2% vs. LDB 19.7%; adjusted OR, 2.50; 95% CI, 1.05-6.00. Survival to hospital discharge was increased Manual 1.3% vs. LDB 3.3%; adjusted OR, 3.99; 95% CI, 1.06-15.02. The number of survivors with Cerebral Performance Category 1 (good) (Manual 1 vs. LDB 12, p < 0.01) and Overall Performance Category 1 (good) (Manual 1 vs. LDB 10, p < 0.01) was also increased. The Number Needed to Treat (NNT) for 1 survivor was 52 (95% CI, 26-1000).
A resuscitation strategy using LDB-CPR in an ED environment was associated with improved survival to admission and discharge in adults with non-traumatic cardiac arrest.
To reduce nationwide door-to-balloon times (DTB) in patients presenting with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) requiring primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), by adoption of pre-hospital wireless 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) transmission by Singapore's national ambulance service.
A phased, prospective, before-after, interventional study of all patients who presented to the national ambulance service with the diagnosis of STEMI. In the ‘Before’ phase, chest pain patients only received 12-lead ECGs on arrival at the Emergency Departments (ED), where diagnosis of STEMI could be made. In the ‘After’ phase, 12-lead ECGs were performed in the field by ambulance crews and transmitted while en-route to the hospitals. Diagnoses of STEMI was made by on-duty emergency physicians (EP) prior to patients' arrival and PCI activated. Data was collected from ambulance run sheets, ECG transmission logs, EDs and cardiology units.
451 eligible patients from “Before” and 214 patients from “After” phase were included in the analysis. Median DTB time was 88 minutes in the “Before” and 52 minutes in the “After” phase (p = 0.0001). During office hours, median DTB times for ‘Before’ and ‘After’ phases were 84 minutes and 47 minutes, respectively (p = 0.0001). After office hours, median DTB times for ‘Before’ and ‘After’ phases were 95 minutes and 54 minutes, respectively (p = 0.0001). There were 11 false positive activations in “Before” phase and one in the “After” phase.
Pre-hospital ECG transmission resulted in significant reduction of DTB time; this effect occurred regardless of whether patients presented to the ED before or after office hours. No increase in false activations was found in the “After” phase. Pre-hospital ECG transmission should be adopted as “standard of care” for all STEMI cases meeting the criteria for PCI.
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