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Incidental findings arising from imaging research have important implications for patient safety. Magnetic resonance imaging is widespread in multiple sclerosis (MS) studies and care, yet the prevalence rate of incidental findings in MS is poorly defined. The absence of such reports in the MS literature suggests that such findings may be deemed inappropriate for documentation in research publications, or possibly, not fully reported at all.
We sought to document incidental findings from a study designed to detect features of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) in MS patients and control subjects.
Magnetic resonance images were obtained as part of a prospective study conducted between October 2010 and September 2012. Patients with MS (relapsing-remitting, primary progressive, secondary progressive), clinically isolated syndromes, and neuromyelitis optica and age/sex-matched healthy controls were included. All images were reviewed by neuro-radiologists for quality-control purposes.
Magnetic resonance imaging was successfully obtained in 166 participants (110 patients, 56 controls). Incidental abnormalities (n = 33) were detected in 15% of patients (n = 17) and 27% of controls (n = 15), comprising 19% overall (n = 32).
The prevalence of incidental findings from the MS population was not significantly different from the control population. However, the overall prevalence was high and warrants a careful management strategy for future imaging studies.
Retinal artery occlusion represents a medical emergency with poor prognosis for visual recovery. Spontaneous improvement is estimated to occur in less than 15% of central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) cases and conventional treatments have provided only limited benefit. Intra-arterial thrombolysis has been reported as a potentially efficacious and safe treatment.
We performed a retrospective chart review of all retinal artery occlusion cases treated with intra-arterial recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rtPA) from January 1998 to May 2004. Patients received Goldmann perimetry visual field testing at a variable interval following the procedure (2 days-2.5 years). Visual acuity (VA) was re-assessed in May 2004.
Eight cases (59-77 years) were treated for CRAO, 6-18 hours post-onset with intra-arterial rtPA (10-20 mg over 15-60 minutes); one case of branch occlusion (BRAO) was treated with 30 mg rtPA over 75 minutes, 12 hours post-onset. Among the six patients with CRAO assessed in clinic, three experienced improvement in VA by two or more gradations (Snellen lines); three improved by one gradation. However, none achieved a final VA better than 20/300. The case of branch occlusion improved to a VA of 20/20. All patients had residual monocular field defects.
Our findings reveal a limited benefit for intra-arterial tPA compared to the rate of spontaneous improvement and conventional forms of therapy for retinal artery occlusion.
Prediction of outcome after stroke is important for triage decisions, prognostic estimates for family and for appropriate resource utilization. Prognostication must be timely and simply applied. Several scales have shown good prognostic value. In Calgary, the Orpington Prognostic Score (OPS) has been used to predict outcome as an aid to rehabilitation triage. However, the OPS has not been assessed at one week for predictive capability.
Among patients admitted to a sub-acute stroke unit, OPS from the first week were examined to determine if any correlation existed between final disposition after rehabilitation and first week score. The predictive validity of the OPS at one week was compared to National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score at 24 hours using logistic regression and receiver operator characteristics analysis. The primary outcome was final disposition after discharge from the stroke unit if the patient went directly home, or died, or from the inpatient rehabilitation unit.
The first week OPS was highly predictive of final disposition. However, no major advantage in using the first week OPS was observed when compared to 24h NIHSS score. Both scales were equally predictive of final disposition of stroke patients, post rehabilitation.
The first week OPS can be used to predict final outcome. The NIHSS at 24h provides the same prognostic information.
Stroke incidence has fallen since 1950. Recent trends suggest that stroke incidence may be stabilizing or increasing. We investigated time trends in stroke occurrence and in-hospital morbidity and mortality in the Calgary Health Region.
All patients admitted to hospitals in the Calgary Health Region between 1994 and 2002 with a primary discharge diagnosis code (ICD-9 or ICD-10) of stroke were included. In-hospital strokes were also included. Stroke type, date of admission, age, gender, discharge disposition (died, discharged) and in-hospital complications (pneumonia, pulmonary embolism, deep venous thrombosis) were recorded. Poisson and simple linear regression was used to model time trends of occurrence by stroke type and age-group and to extrapolate future time trends.
From 1994 to 2002, 11642 stroke events were observed. Of these, 9879 patients (84.8%) were discharged from hospital, 1763 (15.1%) died in hospital, and 591 (5.1%) developed in-hospital complications from pneumonia, pulmonary embolism or deep venous thrombosis. Both in-hospital mortality and complication rates were highest for hemorrhages. Over the period of study, the rate of stroke admission has remained stable. However, total numbers of stroke admission to hospital have faced a significant increase (p=0.012) due to the combination of increases in intracerebral hemorrhage (p=0.021) and ischemic stroke admissions (p=0.011). Sub-arachnoid hemorrhage rates have declined. In-hospital stroke mortality has experienced an overall decline due to a decrease in deaths from ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage and sub-arachnoid hemorrhage.
Although age-adjusted stroke occurrence rates were stable from 1994 to 2002, this is associated with both a sharp increase in the absolute number of stroke admissions and decline in proportional in-hospital mortality. Further research is needed into changes in stroke severity over time to understand the causes of declining in-hospital stroke mortality rates.
BaZrO3 and BaHfO3 modified polycrystalline BaTiO3 are candidate materials for transverse mode and pyroelectric charge coupled device (CCD) arrays. Addition of 3–4% barium zirconate and barium hafnate to barium titanate alters the temperature of phase transformations and with it, dielectric and pyroelectric properties. These additions create a temperature range close to room temperature where the pyroelectric coefficient is extremely high relative to the dielectric permittivity. These materials show a very high figure of merit for dielectric bolometer applications that is competitive with existing materials, while being relatively easy to prepare.
W report here the nature of the hole traps in singly doged (Ce3+, Tb3+ or Sm3+) and doubly doped (Ce3+ or Eu2+ and Sm3+) MgS. Ce3+ switches its role from electron trap to hole trap when Sm3+ is added to the host. Stimulated luminescence involving these hole trapsare presented. On codoping with monovalent Li+ or Na+ ions V type hole centers can be significantly reduced in MgS doped with the trivalent ions.
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