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This paper gives a brief overview of the Gaia Research for European Astronomy Training (GREAT) network, including a description of the GREAT-ESF Research Network Programme and the GREAT Initial Training Network (GREAT-ITN). Scientific highlights from the GREAT-ITN are noted.
Hypervelocity stars are those that have speeds exceeding the escape speed and are hence unbound from the Milky Way. We investigate a sample of low-mass hypervelocity candidates obtained using data from the high-precision SDSS Stripe 82 catalogue, which we have combined with spectroscopy from the 200-inch Hale Telescope at Palomar Observatory. We find four good candidates, but without metallicities it is difficult to pin-down their distances and therefore total velocities. Our best candidate has a significant likelihood that it is escaping the Milky Way for a wide-range of metallicities.
We describe a new method for analysing N-body simulations. The method makes a blind search for resonant orbits by making use of the fact that resonant orbits will return to some previously occupied region of phase space. An application of this method is made to the N-body simulation of Shen et al. (2010). The simulation is host to a strong and persistent central bar that drives resonances and angular momentum exchange, even in the outer parts of the disc. We deconstruct the barred disc into it's constituent resonant orbit families. We then study the contribution of each orbit family to the kinematic landscape around the disc.
Rearrangements of atomic columns on extended gold surfaces have been imaged directly using a 500kV high resolution electron microscope. The (100), (110) and (111) surface profiles were all found to be highly mobile and microscopically rough, with (111) in particular developing a characteristic hill-and-valley morphology. The presence of surface steps had a marked influence on the direction of surface diffusion only for the (100) surface. The observations establish that high-resolution profile imaging can provide unique information about surface self-diffusion which is unobtainable by other techniques.
The macroscopic properties of most materials depend directly on their microstructure and its local variability at the atomic level. Recent trends in high resolution electron microscopes (HREMs) have led to resolving powers on this scale, which in turn has made these instruments invaluable to many materials science investigations. The purposes of this short review are firstly to outline some of the fundamentals of high resolution image formation and interpretation and then to summarise some of the latest instrumental developments. Some recent applications are briefly described to provide some appreciation of the wide range of materials currently being investigated with the HREM. The impact of this work should be apparent from reference to other papers in this volume as well as several recent reviews [1–3] and special conference proceedings [4–5]. The likelihood of further developments in instrumentation and the necessity for complementary information from other techniques are also briefly considered.
A high resolution electron microscope study of grain boundary structures in Au thin films has been undertaken from both a theoretical and experimental point of view. The criteria necessary to interpret images of tilt boundaries at the atomic level, which include electron optical and specimen effects, have been considered for both 200kV and the newer 400kV medium voltage microscopes. So far, the theoretical work has concentrated on two different  tilt bounda-ries where a resolution of 2.03Å is required to visualize bulk lattice structures on either side of the interface. Both a high angle boundary, (210) σ=5, and a low angle boundary, (910) σ=41, have been considered. Computational results using multislice dynamical diffraction and image simulations of relaxed bounda-ries viewed edge-on and with small amounts of beam and/or specimen inclina-tion have been obtained. It will be shown that some structural information concerning grain boundary dislocations can be observed at 200kV. However, many difficulties occur in the exact identification of the interface structure viewed experimentally for both  and  boundaries since the resolution required is near the performance limit of a 200kV microscope. The simulated results at 400kV indicate a considerable improvement will be realized in obtain-ing atomic structure information at the interface.
We present a novel oxidation method to improve the surface roughness at the poly-oxide/poly-Si interface. Instead of directly oxidizing the poly-Si to the desired thickness of the SiO2, a thin oxide layer is thermally grown on the poly-Si layer and then an a-Si layer is deposited on the top of the oxide layer. The a-Si layer is used as a silicon-source during next step of oxidation. The a-Si layer is fully oxidized until the poly-oxide/poly-Si interface advances below the initial interface. For comparison, the poly-oxide/poly-Si interface is also obtained by the conventional oxidation method. The surface roughness at the interface is investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). For the novel oxidation method with the 50 Å thick intermediate oxide, the rms surface roughness at the poly-oxide/poly-Si interface is 30 Å, whereas that is 120 Å for the conventional method.
The optical and electrical properties of chrome-doped CdGeAs2 (CGA), an important non-linear optical material, are reported. CGA, a chalcopyrite semiconductor of the pseudo- III-V type, is a close ternary analog to GaAs, possessing significant differences. To date, the electrical and optical properties of as-grown undoped CGA have been controlled by a somewhat shallow dominant residual acceptor which it is the source of significant undesirable optical absorption. Highly transparent semi-insulating CGA should be attainable using compensation and counterdoping schemes similar to those used for GaAs. However, identifying suitable deep and shallow n-type and p-type dopants will require extensive empirical studies. As a starting point of survey to find deep levels, the properties of CGA:Cr have been investigated. Cr is a reasonable choice as it has been used extensively to provide a deep level in GaAs. Thermal Admittance Spectroscopy was used to examine the electrically active levels in this material. These measurements were correlated with temperature dependent Hall effect measurements, and IR absorption measurements. SIMS analysis was utilized to estimate the Cr concentration as the segregation coefficient for Cr in CGA has not been reported.. The results show that there is a p-type level introduced into the band gap at about 0.16 eV above the valence band, a value nominally 50% deeper than that of the native acceptor. The background doping as measured by Capacitance-Voltage measurements was determined to be 8 × 1016 cm−3 near the surface, and 1.0 × 1017 cm−3 in the bulk. These results are compared to similar measurements in undoped material.
The recent introduction of dual inlaid Cu and oxide based interconnects within sub-0.25μm CMOS technology has delivered higher performance and lower power devices. Further speed improvements and power reduction may be achieved by reducing the interconnect parasitic capacitance through integration of low-k interlevel dielectric (ILD) materials with Cu. This paper demonstrates successful multi-level dual inlaid Cu/low-k interconnects with ILD permittivities ranging from 2.0 to 2.5. Integration challenges specific to inorganic low-k and Cu based structures are discussed. Through advanced CMP process development, multi-level integration of porous oxide materials with moduli less than 0.5 GPa is demonstrated. Parametric data and isothermal annealing of these Cu/ low-k structures show results with yield comparable to Cu/oxide based interconnects.
Brudnyi, et al., and Zwieback, et al., have shown that introducing damage by irradiation with MeV electrons can alter the electrical and optical properties of undoped p-type CdGeAs2(CGA) crystals. Brudnyi's studies of the electrical transport properties of isochronally annealed samples demonstrated type conversion and identified at least two new centers, one a stable donor. Zwieback used multi-MeV electrons to introduce compensating donors, thereby, significantly improving the optical transparency of CGA crystals. However, at the present little is known about these centers. Therefore, we have studied these centers by observing the properties of electron-irradiated specimens using Thermal Admittance Spectroscopy (TAS) and correlated the results of these measurements with capacitance-voltage measurements and Hall effect measurements. Measurements before an after irradiation are compared. The as-grown native acceptor concentrations in our samples varied from a low in the mid 1016 cm−3to nearly 1019 cm−3. Significant changes in the electrically active states in the band gap were seen as a result of a single irradiation with 2 MeV electrons to a total dose of 5 × 105cm−2. The samples appear to respond more strongly than Brudnyi's samples. The thermal activation energies have been determined using TAS and they will be reported.
This paper presents a simple but complete 2D model for helical flux-compression generators that overcomes many of the limitations present in existing zero-dimensional models. The generator circuit is effectively decomposed into separate z and; current carrying circuits, with each of the; circuits (rings) corresponding to a different current. Use is also made of a technique by which these rings are sequentially switched out of circuit. The approach proposed opens the way to a full understanding of the behavior of cascade systems of generators inductively coupled by dynamic transformers using the so-called flux-trapping technique. In addition, the model can also yield an important insight into the phenomena that differentiates the performance of small generators when primed by a capacitor, a battery, or an externally produced magnetic field. Finally, the numerical code developed in the paper can readily be adapted to model high-energy and high-current generators in which the helical coil and the armature are of variable geometry. Valuable design information is provided on the magnetic and the electric field distributions within the generator and on the likely radial and axial movements of the stator turns.
In a number of single-shot applications and experiments at remote locations where flux-compression generators provide the most practicable power source, it may be necessary to use cascaded generators with inductive coupling between them to provide the required power amplification. The complexity of the resulting system appears to have so far inhibited the development of any simple but complete numerical code, and has prevented a full understanding of the complex action of the overall system. The present paper meets these requirements, by extending an existing simple 2D helical generator code, and shows how this can be used to solve problems arising from the design stage of a prototype system.
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