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Chagas disease, whose aetiological agent is the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, mainly occurs in Latin America. In order to know the epidemiology and the geographical distribution of this disease in Mexico, the present work analyses the national surveillance data (10 years) for Chagas disease issued by the General Directorate of Epidemiology (GDE). An ecological analysis of Chagas disease (2007–2016) was performed in the annual reports issued by the GDE in Mexico. The cases and incidence were classified by year, state, age group, gender and seasons. A national distribution map showing Chagas disease incidence was generated. An increase of new cases was identified throughout the country (rates from 0.37 to 0.81 per 100 000 inhabitants). Of the total cases accumulated (7388), the major cases were attributed to the states of Veracruz, Chiapas, Quintana Roo, Oaxaca, Morelos and Yucatán. The analysis per age groups and gender revealed that, in most age groups, the incidence was higher in the male population. The most number of cases was identified in spring and summer; a direct relationship between the environmental temperature increase and the number of new cases was identified. The analysis showed that the rate of Chagas disease increased presumably due to state programmes; the search for new cases has expanded and we speculate that the disease is associated with occupational activities. These results summarise and recall how important it is to implement the monitoring of Chagas disease mainly in south states of the Mexican Republic in order to implement strategies to control this disease.
The EU is the second largest world producer of beef meat, but production is fragmented, consisting of highly variable local systems, compared with homogenous, highly intensive feedlot systems. The current EU agricultural policy requires a reorientation of beef market to take advantage of this diversity by creating meat quality labels relating to geographical areas and with specific genotype and production systems, symbols of guaranteed quality. The aim of this experiment was to analyse the relationships between productive and carcass parameters with some meat quality traits, within breed-production systems in different European countries.
Seasonality is an important aspect associated with population dynamic and structure of tropical insect assemblages. This study evaluated the effects of seasonality on abundance, richness, diversity and composition of an insect group, drosophilids, including species native to the Neotropical region and exotic ones. Three preserved fragments of the northern Atlantic Forest were surveyed, where temperatures are above 20 °C throughout the year and rainfall regimes define two seasons (dry and rainy). As opposed to other studies about arthropods in tropical regions, we observed that abundance of drosophilids was significantly higher in the dry season, possibly due to biological aspects and the colonization strategy adopted by the exotic species in these environments. Contrarily to abundance, we did not observe a seasonal pattern for richness. As for other parts of the Atlantic Forest, the most representative Neotropical species (Drosophila willistoni, D. sturtevanti, D. paulistorum and D. prosaltans) were significantly more abundant in the rainy season. Among the most abundant exotic species, D. malerkotliana, Zaprionus indianus and Scaptodrosophila latifasciaeformis were more importantly represented the dry season, while D. simulans was more abundant in the rainy period. The seasonality patterns exhibited by the most abundant species were compared to findings published in other studies. Our results indicate that exotic species were significantly more abundant in the dry season, while native ones exhibited an opposite pattern.
The Antarctic Roadmap Challenges (ARC) project identified critical requirements to deliver high priority Antarctic research in the 21st century. The ARC project addressed the challenges of enabling technologies, facilitating access, providing logistics and infrastructure, and capitalizing on international co-operation. Technological requirements include: i) innovative automated in situ observing systems, sensors and interoperable platforms (including power demands), ii) realistic and holistic numerical models, iii) enhanced remote sensing and sensors, iv) expanded sample collection and retrieval technologies, and v) greater cyber-infrastructure to process ‘big data’ collection, transmission and analyses while promoting data accessibility. These technologies must be widely available, performance and reliability must be improved and technologies used elsewhere must be applied to the Antarctic. Considerable Antarctic research is field-based, making access to vital geographical targets essential. Future research will require continent- and ocean-wide environmentally responsible access to coastal and interior Antarctica and the Southern Ocean. Year-round access is indispensable. The cost of future Antarctic science is great but there are opportunities for all to participate commensurate with national resources, expertise and interests. The scope of future Antarctic research will necessitate enhanced and inventive interdisciplinary and international collaborations. The full promise of Antarctic science will only be realized if nations act together.
Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are a class of materials that can be manipulated under the influence of an external magnetic field. Thanks to the ability of the MNPs to be guided by an external magnetic field that is like "action at a distance", combined with their low cytotoxicity and the intrinsic penetrability of magnetic fields into human tissue, opens up many applications involving the transport and/or immobilization of biological entities [1, 2].
This work is focused on the synthesis of magnetite nanoparticles by varied methods, their functionalization with nickel tetrasulfonated phthalocyanine, and the corresponding physicochemical characterization and colloidal stability studies in biologically compatible media. The in vitro production of singlet oxygen by these nanoparticles through photochemical stimulation in ultraviolet and visible region was evaluated, resulting in 4.5 and 4 µM respectly to magnetite synthetized in the group. The increase reactive oxygen species concentration in the cellular environment can result in modification and damage of cellular components, and potentially, cell death and necrosis. Therefore, these materials offer the promise of revolutionary tools for photodynamic therapy and hyperthermia, which are attractive strategies for cancer therapy without systemic toxicity.
HR 4047 (HD 89343, EN UMa, V = 592, A7Vn) was found to be variable (Plume & Percy, 1988) with an amplitude of hundredths of a magnitude. Since then, this star has been observed by HIPPARCOS. Koen (2001), analysing those data, obtained two frequencies 6.43185 c d-1 and 4.31308 c d-1.
Our observations were made at the Observatorio de Sierra Nevada in Spain in 1997 and 1998 with the telescope of 0.9m. The comparisons stars for 1997 were C1 = HD 88983 (V = 577, A8III) and C2 = HD 88815 (V = 642, F2V), while for 1998 we add the check star C3 = HD 90838 (V = 7.30, F2). The photometric data obtained were analyzed using the Fourier Transform method in the Strömgren v filter. The periodogram of the v band data is shown in Fig. 1. The periodogram presents six clear frequencies and after prewhitening these there is still more power, but the frequencies found are not consistent between the different bands. Applying these frequencies to the data of the 1997 and 1998 separately, we obtain the results shown in Table 1. Note that the amplitudes have changed from one year to another. The results of 1998 agree with the two frequencies found by Koen (2001). Fig. 1 shows the light curves of the observed data for both campaigns in the v filter. The points represent the observations while the solid lines represent the fit for the frequencies listed in Table 1. Further observations are needed to obtain a more detailed pulsational behaviour of this star.
Recently, new views of the current status of δ Scuti stars have been developed by Rodríguez & Breger (2001) who carried out an excellent review, listing 8 pre-main-sequence (PMS) δ Scuti candidates and examined the possibility of the existence of PMS δ Scuti variable stars. Here we discuss the nature of 4 stars from their list: 2 said to be members of NGC 2264 and 2 of NGC 6823.
Low temperature photoluminescence spectra of Be-doped layers grown on Si (111) by molecular beam epitaxy have been analyzed. Emissions at 3.466 eV and 3.384 eV, and a broad band centered at 2.4-2.5 eV are observed. Their evolution with temperature and excitation power, and time resolved PL measurements ascribe an excitonic character for the luminescence at 3.466 eV, whereas the emission at 3.384 eV is associated with a donor-acceptor pair transition. This recombination involves residual donors and Be-related acceptors, which are located around 90meV above the valence band, confirming Be as the shallowest acceptor reported in GaN. The intensity of the band at 2.4-2.5 eV increases with the Be content. This emission involves a band of deep acceptors generated by Be complex defects, as suggested by the parameter g = 2.008 ± 0.003 obtained by photoluminescence-detected electron paramagnetic resonance.
Modelling automobile insurance claims is a crucial component in the ratemaking procedure. This paper focuses on the probability that a policyholder reports a claim, where the classical logit link does not provide a right model. This is so because databases related with automobile claims are often unbalanced, containing more non-claims than the presence of claims. In this work an asymmetric logit model, which takes into account the large number of non-claims in the portfolio, is considered. Both, logit and asymmetric logit models from a Bayesian point of view, are used to a sample that was collected from a major automobile insurance company in Spain in 2009, resulting in a dataset of 2,000 passenger vehicle. We establish the validity of the asymmetric model in front of the conventional logit link. The use of a garage, the age of the vehicle and the duration of the client's relation with the company are all shown to be significant explanatory variables by the logit model. The asymmetric model includes, in addition, the length of time the policyholder has held a driving licence and the type of use made of the vehicle. The asymmetric model provides a better fit to the data examined.
In this contribution we briefly introduce a mechanism for short gamma ray burst emission
different from the usually assumed compact objects binary merger progenitor model. It is
based on the energy release in the central regions of neutron stars. This energy injection
may be due to internal self-annihilation of dark matter gravitationally accreted from the
galactic halo. We explain how this effect may trigger its full or partial conversion into
a quark star and, in such a case, induce a gamma ray burst with isotropic equivalent
energies in agreement with those measured experimentally. Additionally, we show how the
ejection of the outer crust in such events may be accelerated enough to produce Lorentz
factors over those required for gamma ray emission.
The role of quenched-in vacancies in FeAl intermetallics on producing considerable hardening is well known, as is the softening on annealing as vacancies are annihilated. The present study examines quench hardening and anneal softening by quenched-in vacancies and interstitial carbon solute in Fe-40Al-C. Interstitial carbon is seen to be a more potent hardening agent than the vacancy, while the co-annihilation of vacancies and carbon atoms from solution during annealing leads to dislocation loop debris, and equiaxed or plate-like carbide precipitation, according to the annealing conditions. The processes occurring have been followed by detailed TEM studies, and are discussed in terms of the relative solubilities and diffusion rates of vacancies and carbon. The relevance of such interstitial solute hardening to the behaviour of other FeAl intermetallics is also briefly considered.
The lithium ion conducting properties of materials of composition La0.58Li0.26TiO3, Nd0.58Li0.26TiO3, La0.67Li0.25Ti0.75Al0.25O3 and La0.29Li0.12NbO3 have been compared in relation with their microstructure. All the oxides have powder X-ray diffraction patterns characteristic of a perovskite-related structure with lattice parameters a∼√2ap, b∼√2ap, c∼2ap (p refers to cubic perovskite). However, some important differences are observed in their microstructure by SAED and HRTEM. Ordering between vacancies, Li+ and La3+ or Nd3+ and twinning of the NbO6 or TiO6 octahedra tilting system are shown in La0.29Li0.12NbO3 and Nd0.58Li0.26TiO3, which are the materials having a lower ionic conductivity. The La0.58Li0.26TiO3 and La0.67Li0.25Ti0.75Al0.25O3 oxides do not show ordering between cations.
Using Photoreflectance (PR) measurements, we have investigated In0.53Ga0.47As single quantum wells (SQW) with In0.52Al0.48As barriers grown by MBE on InP substrates. Unusual lineshapes of PR spectra are observed for the fundamental transition in some of the SQW. This phenomenon is shown to be independent on the widths of both the SQW (5nm or 10nm) and the surface barrier layer (between 65nm and 300nm). PR spectra are recorded at different temperatures and in different samples, as well as with a secondary pump laser beam. From these measurements, it is concluded that interface defects exist in the SQW grown at 525°C without growth interruption. Such defects are clearly evidenced in room temperature PR experiments and confirmed by PL measurements.
The calcium ferrite type structure of Na0.875Fe0.875Ti1.125O4 has double tunnels which are occupied by double rows of sodium atoms running along the b-axis. We have partially removed sodium from this compound at moderate temperatures with different oxidizing agents. Electrochemical studies show that the resulting materials, Na0.875Fe0.875Ti1.125O4 (0 ≤ δ ≤ 0.4), can reversibly intercalate lithium at potentials between 3.8 and 1 volt. At the lowest voltages, a compound containing ∼ 0.5 lithium per formula is formed. By chemical reaction of Na0.875Fe0.875Ti1.125O4 with n-butyllithium, the maximum lithium content also corresponds to Li0.5Na0.875Fe0.875Ti1.125O4. This suggests that many more than the one eighth of the empty sodium sites, per unit cell, of the parent phase are now being occupied by lithium.
Conventional MOCVD method has been explored to prepare Pd supported catalysts. Pd and PdO phases were found on the surface of the support. Small Pd particles about 1 to 3 nm and dispersions up to 19%were obtained by MOCVD. TPR results indicated that several surface Pd compounds are reduced. At temperatures below 25°C, PdO, the main compound, is completely converted to metallic Pd which forms hydrides. At higher temperatures, between 500 to 800°C, the reduction peaks could be attributed to Pd-support interactions and a strong support dehydroxylation. All catalysts were inactive in benzene hydrogenation and a significant conversion was only detected a temperatures above 100 °C. This was explained by the reduced accessibility of Pd sites imposed by the carbon contamination and by the Pd-Al2O3 interactions.
TTB-type NaNbWO6 has been used to perform sodium-proton exchange reactions by using nitric acid as an exchanging agent. The characterisation of the exchange reaction products, performed by means of chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis, indicate that the exchange reaction takes place topotactically. The following formula is proposed for the obtained phase of variable composition: Na1-xHxNbWO6 (0<x<0.46).
We show in this work the usefulness of the polymeric precursors method to obtain several Ba(BIII2/3W1/3)O3 (B = In, Y, Dy, Gd, Sm) complex perovskites. Solid resins obtained from solution were treated at different temperatures and characterized by XRD and thermal analysis. BaCO3 and Ba(NO3)2 were the only crystalline species found below 500°C. Tungstates with different stoichiometry evolve from the powdered precursors as the temperature is raised. Formation of perovskite-like phases is evident in all five cases, above 1000°C. XRD results suggest also that trivalent ions do not participate in chemical reactions below that temperature since the presence of any binary phase containing them could be confirmed.
New TeMoV and TeMo(V,Nb) bronze type phases have been obtained during the heat-treatment (600° C in N2) of the corresponding precursor mixture. Both mixed oxides seem to be structurally related to one of the crystalline phases proposed in Mo-V-Te-Nb-O catalysts. Chemical and microstructural characterization revealed the formation of an orthorhombically distorted cell deriving from a bronze type HTB structure, which does not behave as a bronze type structure in the chemical sense. Microstructural details responsible for the new unit cell are discussed in terms of tellurium location inside the hexagonal tunnels and based on the structural model proposed.