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Fibre degradation in the rumen needs the concerted action of numerous microbial species. The removal of molecular hydrogen (H2) by methanogenesis is postulated to eliminate the inhibitory effect of H2 on the microbial degradation of feed material. Different fibre structures in forages can alter fibre digestibility and influence fibrolytic microorganisms in the rumen, which may be associated with ruminal dissolved H2 (dH2) concentration. Napier grass (NG) silage and corn stover (CS) silage were compared as forage sources in the present study. In the first experiment, both forages were incubated to determine fibre degradation, total gas, methane (CH4) and hydrogen (H2) accumulation through 48-h in vitro batch cultures. Corn stover silage had greater (P < 0.05) 48-h DM, NDF and ADF degradation, and total gas and CH4 volumes, and lower (P < 0.05) 48-h H2 volume than NG silage in in vitro incubations. In the second experiment, 24 growing beef bulls were allocated to 12 blocks according to body weight, and each animal within a block was fed a diet including 55% (DM basis) NG or CS silage. Bulls fed the CS diet had greater (P < 0.05) DM intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG), total-tract digestibility of OM and NDF, ruminal dissolved methane (dCH4) concentration, and gene copies of protozoa, methanogens, Ruminococcus albus and Ruminococcus flavefaciens, and had lower (P < 0.05) ruminal dH2 concentration, and molar proportions of valerate and isovalerate, in comparison with those fed the NG diet. There was a negative correlation between dH2 concentration and NDF digestibility in bulls fed the CS diet (R2 = 0.48, P = 0.02), and a lack of relationship between dH2 concentration and NDF digestibility with the NG diet (R2 < 0.01, P = 0.90; interaction dH2 × diet P = 0.006). In summary, the fibre of CS silage was more easily degraded by rumen microorganisms than that of NG silage. Increased dCH4 concentration with the CS diet presumably led to the decreased ruminal dH2 concentration, which may be helpful for fibre degradation and growth of fibrolytic microorganisms in the rumen.
A 6-week growth trial was conducted to evaluate the influences of dietary valine (Val) levels on growth, protein utilization, immunity, antioxidant status and gut micromorphology of juvenile hybrid grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus ♀ × Epinephelus lanceolatus ♂). Seven isoenergetic (340 kcal per 100 g of dry matter), isoproteic (49.3% of dry matter) and isolipidic (7% of dry matter) diets were formulated to contain graded Val levels (1.21, 1.32, 1.45, 1.58, 1.69, 1.82 and 1.94%, dry-matter basis). Each experimental diet was hand-fed to triplicate groups of 12 hybrid grouper juveniles (average initial body weight: 10.8 ± 0.01 g/fish) which were randomly distributed into 21 glass tanks (L 60 cm × W 45 cm × H 50 cm) connected to mechanical and biological water filters as a recycling system. Results showed that weight gain percentage (WG%), protein productive value (PPV), protein efficiency ratio (PER), and feed efficiency (FE) were increased as dietary Val level increased, reaching a peak value at 1.58% dietary Val, and thereafter, these four parameters declined as dietary Val levels continued to increase. Fish fed 1.58% dietary Val had lower daily feed intake (DFI) than fish fed other dietary Val levels. The quadratic regression analysis of WG%, PPV, PER and FE against dietary Val levels indicated that the optimum dietary Val requirement for hybrid grouper was estimated to be 1.56, 1.61, 1.61 and 1.60%, respectively. Gut micromorphology was significantly influenced by dietary Val levels. Expression of growth hormone (GH) in pituitary, insulin like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), target of rapamycin (TOR) and S6 kinase1 (S6K1) in liver was significantly affected by dietary Val levels, with the highest values exhibited in fish fed 1.58% dietary Val. Fish fed 1.21% dietary Val had lower protein level of S6K1 in liver than fish fed the other dietary Val levels. In serum, fish fed 1.58% dietary Val had higher superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), lysozyme (LZM) activities and immunoglobulin M (IgM) concentrations than fish fed other dietary Val levels. Fish fed 1.58% dietary Val had higher expression of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in head kidney than fish fed other dietary Val levels, and Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) showed an opposite tendency of variations as Nrf2. Generally, the optimum dietary Val requirement for maximal growth of hybrid grouper was estimated to be 1.56% of dry matter, corresponding to 3.16% of dietary protein, and dietary Val levels affected growth, protein utilization, immunity and antioxidant status in hybrid grouper.
Although deficits in affective processing are a core component of anorexia nervosa (AN), we lack a detailed characterization of the neurobiological underpinnings of emotion regulation impairment in AN. Moreover, it remains unclear whether these neural correlates scale with clinical outcomes.
We investigated the neural correlates of negative emotion regulation in a sample of young women receiving day-hospital treatment for AN (n = 21) and healthy controls (n = 21). We aimed to determine whether aberrant brain activation patterns during emotion regulation predicted weight gain following treatment in AN patients and were linked to AN severity. To achieve this, participants completed a cognitive reappraisal paradigm during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Skin conductance response, as well as subjective distress ratings, were recorded to corroborate task engagement.
Compared to controls, patients with AN showed reduced activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) during cognitive reappraisal [pFWE<0.05, threshold-free cluster enhancement (TFCE) corrected]. Importantly, psycho–physiological interaction analysis revealed reduced functional connectivity between the dlPFC and the amygdala in AN patients during emotion regulation (pFWE<0.05, TFCE corrected), and dlPFC-amygdala uncoupling was associated with emotion regulation deficits (r = −0.511, p = 0.018) and eating disorder severity (r = −0.565, p = .008) in the AN group. Finally, dlPFC activity positively correlated with increases in body mass index (r = 0.471, p = 0.042) and in body fat mass percentage (r = 0.605, p = 0.008) following 12 weeks of treatment.
Taken together, our findings indicate that individuals with AN present altered fronto-amygdalar response during cognitive reappraisal and that this response may serve as a predictor of response to treatment and be linked to clinical severity.
Organic carbon (C) plays an essential role in the denitrification process as it supplies energy for N2O, N2 and CO2 producing reactions. The objectives of this study were to: (i) rank the reactivity of different C compounds found in manures based on their availability for denitrification and (ii) explore C-quality in different C sources based on their capacity to promote denitrification. Evaluation of different C-sources in promoting denitrification was conducted based on the molar ratio of CO2 production to NO3− reduction after incubation. Results of the first experiment (a 12-day investigation) showed that glucose and glucosamine were highly reactive C compounds with all applied NO3− being exhausted by day 3, and glucosamine had significantly high amount of NH4+-N present at end of the experiment. The glucose and glucosamine treatments resulted in significantly greater cumulative CO2 production, compared to the other treatments. In the second experiment (a 9-day investigation), all NO3− had been depleted by day 6 and 9 from acetic acid and glucose, respectively, and the greatest cumulative CO2 production was from acetic acid. The CO2 appearance to NO3− molar ratios revealed that glucose and glucosamine were compounds with highly available C in the first experiment. In the second experiment, the pig slurry and acetic acid were found to be C-sources that promoted potential denitrification. The application of slurry to soil results in the promotion of denitrification and this depends on the availability of the C compounds it contains. Understanding the relationship between C availability and denitrification potential is useful for developing denitrification mitigation strategies for organic soil amendments.
This paper provides a solution to the active vibration control of a microsatellite with two solar panels. At first, the microsatellite is processed as a finite element model containing a rigid body and two flexible bodies, according to the principles of mechanics, and that the dynamic characteristics are solved by modal analysis. Secondly, the equation involving vibration control is established according to the finite element calculation results. There are several actuators composed of macro fibre composite on the two solar panels for outputting control force. Furthermore, the control voltage for driving actuator is calculated by using fuzzy algorithm. It is clear that the smart structure consists of the flexible bodies and actuators. Finally, the closed-loop control simulation for suppressing harmful vibration is established. The simulation results illustrate that the responses to the external excitation are decreased significantly after adopting fuzzy control.
Antibiotics are commonly used in intensive care units (ICUs), yet differences in antibiotic use across ICUs are unknown. Herein, we studied antibiotic use across ICUs and examined factors that contributed to variation.
We conducted a retrospective cohort study using data from Ontario’s Critical Care Information System (CCIS), which included 201 adult ICUs and 2,013,397 patient days from January 2012 to June 2016. Antibiotic use was measured in days of therapy (DOT) per 1,000 patient days. ICU factors included ability to provide ventilator support (level 3) or not (level 2), ICU type (medical-surgical or other), and academic status. Patient factors included severity of illness using multiple-organ dysfunction score (MODS), ventilatory support, and central venous catheter (CVC) use. We analyzed the effect of these factors on variation in antibiotic use.
Overall, 269,351 patients (56%) received antibiotics during their ICU stay. The mean antibiotic use was 624 (range 3–1460) DOT per 1,000 patient days. Antibiotic use was significantly higher in medical-surgical ICUs compared to other ICUs (697 vs 410 DOT per 1,000 patient days; P < .0001) and in level 3 ICUs compared to level 2 ICUs (751 vs 513 DOT per 1,000 patient days; P < .0001). Higher antibiotic use was associated with higher severity of illness and intensity of treatment. ICU and patient factors explained 47% of the variation in antibiotic use across ICUs.
Antibiotic use varies widely across ICUs, which is partially associated with ICUs and patient characteristics. These differences highlight the importance of antimicrobial stewardship to ensure appropriate use of antibiotics in ICU patients.
Leg weakness (LW) issues are a great concern for pig breeding industry. And it also has a serious impact on animal welfare. To dissect the genetic architecture of limb-and-hoof firmness in commercial pigs, a genome-wide association study was conducted on bone mineral density (BMD) in three sow populations, including Duroc, Landrace and Yorkshire. The BMD data were obtained by ultrasound technology from 812 pigs (including Duroc 115, Landrace 243 and Yorkshire 454). In addition, all pigs were genotyped using genome-by-sequencing and a total of 224 162 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were obtained. After quality control, 218 141 SNPs were used for subsequent genome-wide association analysis. Nine significant associations were identified on chromosomes 3, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 12 and 18 that passed Bonferroni correction threshold of 0.05/(total SNP numbers). The most significant locus that associated with BMD (P value = 1.92e−14) was detected at approximately 41.7 Mb on SSC6 (SSC stands for Sus scrofa chromosome). CUL7, PTK7, SRF, VEGFA, RHEB, PRKAR1A and TPO that are located near the lead SNP of significant loci were highlighted as functionally plausible candidate genes for sow limb-and-hoof firmness. Moreover, we also applied a new method to measure the BMD data of pigs by ultrasound technology. The results provide an insight into the genetic architecture of LW and can also help to improve animal welfare in pigs.
Investigate protein intake patterns over the day and their association with total protein intake in older adults.
Cross-sectional study utilising the dietary data collected through two non-consecutive, dietary record-assisted 24-h recalls. Days with low protein intake (n 290) were defined using the RDA (<0·8 g protein/kg adjusted BW/d). For each day, the amount and proportion of protein ingested at every hour of the day and during morning, mid-day and evening hours was calculated. Amounts and proportions were compared between low and high protein intake days and related to total protein intake and risk of low protein intake.
739 Dutch community-dwelling adults ≥70 years.
The mean protein intake was 76·3 (sd 0·7) g/d. At each hour of the day, the amount of protein ingested was higher on days with a high protein intake than on days with a low protein intake and associated with a higher total protein intake. The proportion of protein ingested during morning hours was higher (22 v. 17 %, P < 0·0001) on days with a low protein intake, and a higher proportion of protein ingested during morning hours was associated with a lower total protein intake (P < 0·0001) and a higher odds of low protein intake (OR 1·04, 95 % CI 1·03, 1·06). For the proportion of protein intake during mid-day or evening hours, opposite but weaker associations were found.
In this sample, timing of protein intake was associated with total protein intake. Additional studies need to clarify the importance of these findings to optimise protein intake.
Generalization of conditioned-fear, a core feature of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), has been the focus of several recent neuroimaging studies. A striking outcome of these studies is the frequency with which neural correlates of generalization fall within hubs of well-established functional networks including salience (SN), central executive (CEN), and default networks (DN). Neural substrates of generalization found to date may thus reflect traces of large-scale brain networks that form more expansive neural representations of generalization. The present study includes the first network-based analysis of generalization and PTSD-related abnormalities therein.
fMRI responses in established intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) representing SN, CEN, and DN were assessed during a generalized conditioned-fear task in male combat veterans (N = 58) with wide-ranging PTSD symptom severity. The task included five rings of graded size. Extreme sizes served as conditioned danger-cues (CS+: paired with shock) and safety-cues (CS−), and the three intermediate sizes served as generalization stimuli (GSs) forming a continuum-of-size between CS+ and CS–. Generalization-gradients were assessed as behavioral and ICN response slopes from CS+, through GSs, to CS–. Increasing PTSD symptomatology was predicted to relate to less-steep slopes indicative of stronger generalization.
SN, CEN, and DN responses fell along generalization-gradients with levels of generalization within and between SN and CEN scaling with PTSD symptom severity.
Neural substrates of generalized conditioned-fear include large-scale networks that adhere to the functional organization of the brain. Current findings implicate levels of generalization in SN and CEN as promising neural markers of PTSD.
This report is on the synthesis by electrospinning of multiferroic core-shell nanofibers of strontium hexaferrite and lead zirconate titanate or barium titanate and studies on magneto-electric (ME) coupling. Fibers with well-defined core–shell structures showed the order parameters in agreement with values for nanostructures. The strength of ME coupling measured by the magnetic field-induced polarization showed the fractional change in the remnant polarization as high as 21%. The ME voltage coefficient in H-assembled films showed the strong ME response for the zero magnetic bias field. Follow-up studies and potential avenues for enhancing the strength of ME coupling in the core–shell nanofibers are discussed.
White matter abnormalities have been repeatedly reported in both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (BD) diseases from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies respectively, while the empirical evidences about the diagnostic specificity of white matter abnormalities in these disorders are still limited.
25 patients with paranoid schizophrenia and 18 patients with bipolar mania were recruited from the in-patient unit of the Mental Health Centre, West China Hospital, China.
Patients were diagnosed according to the criteria of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Version IV (DSM- IV). 30 healthy controls were recruited from the community by means of leaflets distributed throughout Chengdu city.
This study sought to investigate the alterations in fractional anisotropy (FA) in white matter throughout the entire brain of patients from Chengdu, China with paranoid schizophrenia and bipolar mania.
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was used to assess white matter integrity in patients with paranoid schizophrenia and bipolar mania, as well as in normal controls. The differences in FA were measured by use of voxel-based analysis.
Reduced FA was found in the left posterior corona radiate (PCR) in patients with bipolar mania and paranoid schizophrenia compared to the controls. Patients with bipolar mania also showed a significant reduction in FA in right posterior corona radiate and in right anterior thalamic radiation (ATR).
Common abnormalities in the left PCR might imply an overlap in white matter pathology of both diseases and might be related to the shared risk factors for both disorders.
We present the construction of an expert system (ES) for the diagnosis of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders (OCD). It concerns an artificial intelligence tool, in Lisp language compatible with any personal computer (PC) with a hard disk. The ES asks the user 50 questions in natural language, on the patient or on a clinical history. It is provided with 115 rules of reasoning. Using single or multivaluate variables, the ES reaches the diagnosis of the Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders or the recommendations of differential diagnosis with related patterns or involucred with obsessive pathology: phobic, affective, schizophrenic and Gilles de la Tourette disorders. Finally, the perspectives for the utilisation of the ES in psychopathology are disscussed, in conjunction with the 2 serious problems created, design difficulty and user acceptance.
Depression and anxiety disorders are prevalent mental disorders in China. But some those patients do not seek help from psychiatrists firstly but see internists first.
Objectives and aims
This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of depressive - anxiety disorders in gastroenterology outpatients and assess the detection rate provided by physicians in China.
A multicenter, hospital-based cross-sectional study was carried on in the 15 large general hospitals of five cities cross China. A total of 1995 gastroenterological outpatients were screened by Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Subjects whose HADS scores ≥ 8 were interviewed by psychiatrists, using Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I) to make further diagnoses. Physicians’ diagnoses and treatment were recorded.
The adjusted prevalence of depressive disorder and anxiety disorders was 14.39% and 9.42% respectively.
The prevalence of depressive-anxiety disorder is high in gastroenterology outpatients in China, which suggests the related training of detecting these mental disorders is needed to gastroenterologists.
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is the most effective and fast acting therapy for treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Animal research has consistently pointed to neuroplasticity as a central mechanism of ECT action (1), however evidence in humans remains scarce (2; 3).
We assessed two independent samples of TRD patients referred for ECT. The Barcelona-sample included 13 subjects treated with bitemporal ECT and 10 healthy volunteers (HV). Four successive 3T structural MRIs were acquired: baseline, 24-48 hours after the 1st ECT session, 24-48 hours after the 9th ECT, and two weeks after ECT course completion. HV were scanned twice five weeks apart. Within the framework of the Barcelona-Sydney Clinical Imaging Collaboration, we also scanned 10 patients treated mainly with right unilateral ECT (Sydney-sample). Whole-brain longitudinal grey matter (GM) changes were measured using intra-subject diffeomorphic registration, within SPM12b.
In the Barcelona-sample, over the course of treatment bitemporal ECT produced a linear increase of GM volume in the limbic system (involving bilateral hippocampi and amygdalae). Additionally, volumetric increase within the right subgenual cortex was detected from baseline to the 9th ECT session. Such volume changes were not observed in HV. Furthermore, GM volume expansion correlated positively with depressive symptom improvement and neurocognitive performance (memory and executive function). Hippocampal and amygdalar volume increases were replicated in the Sydney-sample, although limited to the stimulated hemisphere.
ECT effects described here could be accounted for by the induction of regionally specific structural plasticity. Nevertheless, other mechanisms such as neurovascular changes should not be discarded.
5-HTTLPR (serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region) has long (l) and short (s) allelic variations. The s allele is linked to depression, anxiety, and slower response to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI). Both depression and SSRI's are associated with bone loss and fractures. We explored the relationship between the 5-HTTLPR and bone loss.
IRB-approved retrospective chart review of adult psychiatric patients during a 10-year period with both 5-HTTLPR genotype and bone mineral density (BMD) assessment (hip and spine BMD stratified by age, Z-scores < 50, T-scores ≥50 years). Age, gender, and BMD scores were compared between the 5-HTTLPR categories of s allele (l/s and s/s genotypes) versus l/l genotype using one-way ANOVA.
Of 3016 with 5-HTTLPR genotyping, 239 had BMD, with 157 (66%) s allele and 82 (34%) l/l genotypes. Among men and women < 50 years, s allele had lower Z-scores in the hip (−0.6628/n=43 vs −0.1306/n=36, p=0.012) and spine (−0.9762/n=42 vs -0.1000/n=41, p=0.0019) than l/l. There were no differences in T-scores between the s allele and l/l genotypes for men and women ≥50 years. Gender analysis (n=198 women, n=41 men) showed women with s allele had lower Z-scores in the hip (−0.68182/n=33 vs −0.08788/n=33, p=0.0146) and spine (−1.0250/n=32 vs − 0.0586/n=29, p=0.0020) than the l/l genotype.
The s allele is associated with lower bone density at the hip and spine in younger adults, particularly in younger women. Our results suggest 5-HTTLPR variants may mediate serotonin effects on bone in a gender-specific or hormonal/ menopausal-dependent interaction.
Research integrating neuroimaging and molecular genetics has yielded important insights into how variability in brain chemistry predicts brain function and structure, behaviour and risk for psychopathology. Disrupted neurotransmission of glutamate within corticalstriatal-thalamocortical circuitry has been hypothesized to play a role in the pathogenesis of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). Candidate gene studies have identified associations between variants in glutamate system genes and OCD, particularly for SLC1A1, although these results remain controversial after GWAS and meta-analytical approaches.
To examine the effects of multiple polymorphisms of the glutamatergic pathway on frontostriatal connectivity, measured by resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), in OCD.
Individual multilocus genetic profile scores (MGPS) reflecting the additive effects of multiple alleles of the glutamatergic pathway, analysed by the Affymetrix GeneticChip® SNP array, were compiled for 134 OCD patients and 63 healthy controls. Association between these genetic scores and brain functional connectivity patterns between the dorsal and ventral striatal regions and limbic cortical areas including the orbitofrontal cortex and surrounding areas, such as the anterior prefrontal and perigenual anterior cingulate cortex, were investigated.
In the entire group, glutamatergic MGPS were significantly associated with connectivity patterns involving the ventral striatum and orbitofrontal cortex. Distinct relationships between MGPS and functional connectivity between the ventral striatum, amygdala, ventromedial frontal cortex and insula between OCD and healthy subjects emerged.
Glutamatergic genetic risk variants are related to normal frontostriatal connectivity; a fact that might explain the role of glutamatergic pathway disruptions in the susceptibility to develop OCD.
Kleine-Levin syndrome is a rare disorder whose diagnosis is clinical, today there is no clinical test or pathognomonic symptoms feature that facilitates diagnosis. It is necessary to rule out any organic cause etiology to make the diagnosis.
We report a case of a 13 year old patient presented multiple hospitalizations (up to 12) in pediatrics because of behavior and cognitive disturbances: hypersexuality, compulsive eating behavior, hypersomnia, amnesia, and confusion, with the initial diagnosis suspected anti NMDA encephalitis. Throughout its evolution is also studied by psychiatry service. Through this case we explain how finally through the clinical characteristics, the medical test totally normal and the characteristics of the disease patterns (in the form of episodes, absence of symptoms between them …) who our patient is diagnosed with this rare disorder that usually occurs in the second period of life and especially in males.
it is very important to learn about it and be able to identify the characteristics in our work place because in spite of is a rare disorder can have repercussions on a personal (school, family, friends…) environment.
To investigate the difference of visual pattern memory among first-episode treatment-naive patients with deficit and nondeficit schizophrenia.
199 first-episode treatment-naive patients with schizophrenia, and 148 controls were recruited. Schedule for the Deficit Syndrome (SDS) was used to categorize the patients into deficit or nondeficit subtype. Pattern Recognition Memory (PRM) was used to test the immediate and delayed mode of visual pattern memory. Positive and Negative Symptom Scale PANSS was used to assess the degree of patients symptoms.
The PRM immediate mode and delayed mode percent correct was significant lower and time latency was significant longer in two subtypes of patients. There were no significant difference in the performance of immediate mode of PRM between deficit and nondeficit patients[(86.49 ± 15.34) vs. (87.28 ± 16.00), P=0.960]. But the impairment was more severe in patients with deficit schizophrenia [percent correct (63.10 ± 19.17) vs. (70.69 ± 15.34), P< 0.001 time latency 5086.80 ± 7528.54 vs. 3527.40 ± 3649.08 P=0.024] in the delayed mode. and PRM has no significant correlation with the negative symptoms of deficit schizophrenia.
There were significant difference in the performance of immediate and delayed mode of PRM between patients and controls. The difference between first-episode treatment-naïve deficit schizophrenia and nondeficit schizophrenia was only in delayed mode of PRM, and has no correlation with the primary negative symptoms. The deficit schizophrenia is a subtype of schizophrenia with unique impairment of cognitive functions.