To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Chorioamnionitis and intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) are risk factors for cerebral palsy (CP). Common bacteria isolated in chorioamnionitis include group B Streptococcus (GBS) serotypes Ia and III. Little is known about the impact of placental inflammation induced by different bacteria, including different GBS strains. We aimed to test the impact of chorioamnionitis induced by two common GBS serotypes (GBSIa and GBSIII) on growth and neuromotor outcomes in the progeny. Dams were exposed at the end of gestation to either saline, inactivated GBSIa or GBSIII. Inactivated GBS bacteria invaded placentas and triggered a chorioamnionitis featured by massive polymorphonuclear cell infiltrations. Offspring exposed to GBSIII – but not to GBSIa – developed IUGR, persisting beyond adolescent age. Male rats in utero exposed to GBSIII traveled a lower distance in the Open Field test, which was correlating with their level of IUGR. GBSIII-exposed rats presented decreased startle responses to acoustic stimuli beyond adolescent age. GBS-exposed rats displayed a dysmyelinated white matter in the corpus callosum adjacent to thinner primary motor cortices. A decreased density of microglial cells was detected in the mature corpus callosum of GBSIII-exposed males – but not females – which was correlating positively with the primary motor cortex thickness. Altogether, our results demonstrate a causal link between pathogen-induced acute chorioamnionitis and (1) IUGR, (2) serotype- and sex-specific neuromotor impairments and (3) abnormal development of primary motor cortices, dysmyelinated white matter and decreased density of microglial cells.
Aberration-corrected STEM has become a standard analytical technique in the field of nanoscience. As “designer materials” have become more in demand in academic circles, verification of a desired product makes atomic-resolutionanalysis mandatory. Industry currently faces the same trend where tailor-made materials are customized for a given application. Here we show several examples where quantifiable atomic-scale manipulation of nanomaterials can have a dramatic impact on structure and, by extension, functionality.
Childhood emotional maltreatment (CEM) increases the likelihood of developing an anxiety disorder in adulthood, but the neural processes underlying conferment of this risk have not been established. Here, we test the potential for neuroimaging the adult brain to inform understanding of the mechanism linking CEM to adult anxiety symptoms.
One hundred eighty-two adults (148 females, 34 males) with a normal-to-clinical range of anxiety symptoms underwent structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging while completing an emotion-processing paradigm with facial expressions of fear, anger, and happiness. Participants completed self-report measures of CEM and current anxiety symptoms. Voxelwise mediation analyses on gray-matter volumes and activation to each emotion condition were used to identify candidate brain mechanisms relating CEM to anxiety in adulthood.
During processing of fear and anger faces, greater amygdala and less right dorsolateral prefrontal (dlPFC) activation partially mediated the positive relationship between CEM and anxiety symptoms. Greater right posterior insula activation to fear also partially mediated this relationship, as did greater ventral anterior cingulate (ACC) and less dorsal ACC activation to anger. Responses to happy faces in these regions did not mediate the CEM-anxiety relationship. Smaller right dlPFC gray-matter volumes also partially mediated the CEM-anxiety relationship.
Activation patterns of the adult brain demonstrate the potential to inform mechanistic accounts of the CEM conferment of anxiety symptoms. Results support the hypothesis that exaggerated limbic activation to negative valence facial emotions links CEM to anxiety symptoms, which may be consequent to a breakdown of cortical regulatory processes.
Salmonella enterica commonly colonizes the intestinal tract of cattle and is a leading cause of foodborne illness. A previously described investigation into the prevalence of S. enterica on a dairy farm revealed an 8-year-long asymptomatic S. enterica epidemic caused by serotypes Cerro and Kentucky in the lactating herd. To investigate the source of the S. Kentucky strains, the genomes of two S. Kentucky isolates were sequenced; one collected prior to the epidemic (2004) and one collected during the epidemic (2010). Comparative genomic analysis demonstrated significant polymorphisms between the two strains. PCR primers targeting unique and strain-specific regions were developed, and screening of the archived isolates identified the index case of the asymptomatic S. Kentucky epidemic as a heifer that was raised off-site and transported onto the study farm in 2005. Analysis of isolates collected from all heifers brought onto the farm demonstrated frequent re-introduction of clones of the epidemic strain suggesting transmission of pathogens between farms might occur repeatedly.
The ice volume evolution of a frozen waterfall (or ice cascade) was studied using a thermodynamic model. The model was developed from meteorological data collected in the vicinity of the waterfall and validated from ice volume measurements estimated from terrestrial lidar images. The ice cascade forms over a 45 m high rock wall located in northern Gaspésie, Québec, Canada. Two stages of formation were identified. During the first stage, the growth is mainly controlled by air convection around the flowing and free-falling water. The ice cascade growth rate increases with decreasing air temperature below 0°C and when the water flow reaches its lowest level. During the second stage, the ice cascade covers the entire rock-wall surface, water flow is isolated from the outside environment and ice volume increases asymptotically. Heat is evacuated from the water flow through the ice cover by conduction. The growth is controlled mainly by the conductive heat loss through the ice cover but also by the longwave radiation emitted at the ice surface during the night. In spring, melting of the ice cascade is dependent on the air convection over the ice surface but also on the sensible heat carried by the increasing water flow and the solar radiation received during the day.
Tight binaries discovered in young nearby associations are ideal targets to provide dynamical mass measurments through orbital monitoring. Coupled with estimated temperatures, surface gravities and luminosities, direct mass measurments provide benchmarks for evolutionary models of low-mass stars (M ≤ 0.5 M๏) and brown dwarfs (M ≤ 0.078 M๏) at young ages (Age ≤ 100 Myrs).
TWA22 AB is likely to be a member of the nearby TW Hydrae association (Age ~ 8 Myr). It was resolved in a tigh binary with a projected separation of a few AU. In this paper we present preliminary results on the companion orbital monitoring and on the spectral characterisation of the system.
An informatics based approach to extract further refinements on the crystallographic information embedded in the Spatial Distribution Maps (SDMs) has been developed. The data mining based methods to generate and interpret spectra that de-convolute the SDMs are discussed. This work has resulted in a method to generate SDMs that can map three-dimensional crystallographic information as opposed to existing methods that map structural information on only one atomic plane at a time. The broader implications of this work on enhancing the interpretation and resolution of structural information in atom probe tomography studies is also discussed.
Atom probe (AP) is known to be a unique instrument that makes possible to mass analyze a specimen at atomic level. However, its application is mostly limited to metals and semiconductors because the AP analysis proceeds by field evaporating surface atoms applying the high field, 20-40 V/nm, on the specimen surface. In order to generate such a high field the analyzed area is an apex of a sharp tip. Metals and semiconductors can be formed in such a sharp tip easily. However, the formation of a sharp organic and bio molecule tip is not easy. Thus, we introduced a funnel shaped micro extraction electrode that scans over a specimen surface and confines the high field in a narrow space between the micro open hole at the apex of the electrode and a micro protrusion on a specimen surface. Thus, this type of the AP is named as scanning atom probe (SAP). Then, organic and bio molecules can be deposited on the micro protrusion on the specimen surface. The AP analysis of metals indicates that the field evaporation of metal atoms proceeds one atom by one atom implying that the binding between metal atoms are uniform and non-directional. On the other hand most atoms of non-metallic specimens are field evaporated as clustering atoms. For example, doubly charged thiophene monomers are detected when polythiophene is analyzed. This indicates that one sulfur and four carbon atoms are strongly bound. Similarly, the mass spectra of highly pure single walled carbon nano tubes (SWCNT) exhibit sharp mass peaks of C2+ and C+ indicating that carbon atoms are bound by non-directional strong bonds. This implies that the unique feature of the AP is not only in the identification of individual ion but also in the investigation of binding states of the atoms forming the materials. For the present analysis amino acids are deposited on a small ball of the SWCNT fibers in order to avoid the catalytic reaction of metals. The SWCNT ball is dipped in a solution of sample molecules. The glycine solution is made by dissolving 1 gram of glycine in 15 ml pure water. Cystine, leucine and methionine solutions are made by dissolving 50 mg of the molecules in 1 ml of 0.1 N HCl. Discrimination of the carbon ions of the SWCNT from the fragment ions of the molecules is relatively easy because nearly all of the SWCNT carbon ions are detected as C2+ and C+. Glycine is the smallest amino acid formed by a carboxy group, an amino group and a CH2 group. Thus, it is assumed that the analysis will provide a guideline for the analysis of larger molecule. However, the identification of fragments ions is not easy because many different fragments have the same mass such as CH3 and NH. This indicates that mass analyzer for the bio-molecules requires a mass spectrometer with the mass resolution m/Δm higher than 10,000. The characteristic mass spectra of the amino acids and the structure of a new SAP with a position sensitive ion detector with a spiral delay line will be presented.
A Yb:KGW femtosecond laser (400 fs) with 3rd and 4th harmonic generators (wavelength = 343 and 258 nm) was adopted to a locally built 3DAP instrument to assist field evaporation from ceramics tips that were bonded on tungsten wire. Using this setting, we have demonstrated that quantitative atom probe tomography is possible from Y2O3-ZrO2-MgAl2O4, (Ce,Y)O2, Li(Co,Ni,Mg,Al)O2 sintered bulk ceramics, which are all insulators.
A series of simulated microstructures containing nanometer-scale precipitates was created with an atom probe simulator. These data were then analyzed with the proximity histogram and the maximum separation method to determine the influence of the particular analysis method. For simulated 2-nm-radius spherical precipitates, the optimized voxel size and delocalization were found to be 0.5-0.6 nm and 1.0-1.5 nm, respectively. Under optimum analysis parameters, the voxelization/delocalization process only slightly degrades the interface width determined from the proximity histogram to ˜0.15±0.04 nm.
In recent years the development of remote microscopy, specifically in electron microscopes, has begun to emerge as a useful research tool rather than simply an educational or teaching aid. Scientists have long been able to work collaboratively at a distance; however, it is often in terms of receiving data or sending some instructions where there may be a delay in receipt of the information. When defining remote control it is important to note that electron microscopy requires instantaneous control and receipt of the feedback (in most cases via images on a screen). Without realtime control it is impossible to conduct high resolution imaging and analysis work. In terms of electron microscopy, there are several reasons for conducting experiments remotely: With sub-Ångström aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopes, the environment within which the microscope itself sits is of utmost importance.